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CHAPTER 2 C OMPUTER S YSTEMS. 1946-1959. E VOLUTION OF C OMPUTER S YSTEMS. First Generation of Computers. Vacuum tubes. Page 24. 1946-1959. 1957-1963. E VOLUTION OF C OMPUTER S YSTEMS. Second Generation of Computers. Vacuum tubes Transistors. Page 24. 1946-1959. 1957-1963.

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Chapter 2 c omputer s ystems l.jpg

CHAPTER 2

COMPUTER SYSTEMS


E volution of c omputer s ystems l.jpg

1946-1959

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

First Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes

Page 24


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1946-1959

1957-1963

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Second Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes

  • Transistors

Page 24


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1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Third Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes

  • Transistors

  • Integrated circuits

Page 25


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1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

1980 - present

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Fourth Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes

  • Transistors

  • Integrated circuits

  • VLSI (very-large-scale integrated) circuits

Page 25


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1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

1980 - present

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

The Development of Minicomputers

Data General

DEC

Hewlett-Packard

IBM

Page 26


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1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

1980 - present

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

The Development of Microcomputers

Apple

IBM PC

1981

Page 26


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Page 26


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Page 26-27

Table 2.1 Evolution of Intel Microprocessor


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Underlying Structure

Page 28

Figure 2.4 Logical Structure of Digital Computers


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

Terminal

  • Simpler than a PC

  • Designed strictly for input and output

  • Has keyboard and screen

  • Does not have a processor

  • Connected to computer with telecommunication line

  • Allows user to key data directly into computer

Page 28


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

Terminal

  • Special types:

    • Point-of-sale (retail)

    • ATMs (banking)

Page 28


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

  • Common input methods:

    • Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) – used to process bank checks

    • Optical character recognition (OCR) – directly scans typed, printed, or handwritten material

    • Imaging – inputs digital form of documents and photos

    • Bar code labeling – scans bar codes on packages or products, and reads into computer

Page 29


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

  • Common output methods:

    • Print – output to paper using various types of printers

    • Computer output microfilm (COM) – microfilm generated for archive copies in small space

    • Voice response units – computer recognizes input, generates verbal response messages

Page 29


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

Of interest …

Multimedia –

relatively new term for computer input and output in the form of text, graphics, sound, still images, animations, and/or video

Page 29


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Memory


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Memory

Memory

  • All data flows to and from memory

  • Divided into cells:

    • Each has a unique address

    • Memory cell types:

      • Byte – stores one character of data

      • Word – stores two or more characters of data

Page 31


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Bits and Coding Schemes

  • Each memory cell is a set of circuits

  • Each circuit is on or off (represented by 1 or 0)

  • Each circuit corresponds to a bit (binary digit)

  • Most computers – 8 bits (circuits) represents a character (byte)

  • 2 common bit coding schemes used today:

    • ASCII

    • EBCDIC

Page 32


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Bits and Coding Schemes

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Page 32

Figure 2.4 Computer Coding Schemes


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Arithmetic/Logical Unit


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Arithmetic/Logical Unit

  • Consists of VLSI circuits on a silicon chip

  • Carries out:

    • arithmetic – add, subtract, multiply, divide …

    • logical operations – comparing two numbers

Page 33


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • When power is off, everything stored in memory is lost

  • Computer files are used to store data long term

  • File storage devices:

    • Magnetic tape drives, disk drives, floppy drives

    • Optical CD or DVD drives

Page 33


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • Sequential access files

    • Usually stored on magnetic tape drives

  • Direct access files

    • Stored on Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD) - magnetic disk drives

Page 34


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • Types of DASD

    • Fixed (hard) drives

Page 34

Figure 2.7 Diagram of a Magnetic Disk Drive


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • Types of DASD

    • Removable:

      • Floppy drives

      • Zip drives

      • Newest: portable DASD for PCs – keychain drive

Page 34

Figure 2.8 Iomega’s Mini USB Keychain Drive


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • Newer type of DASD

    • Optical Disk Storage

      • CD-ROM 700 megabytes read-only

      • CD-R recordable

      • CD-RW rewritable

      • DVD-ROM 4.7 gigabytes read-only

      • DVD-R recordable

      • DVD-RW rewritable

Page 36


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Control Unit


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BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Control Unit

  • Controls computer to take advantage of speed and capacity of other components

  • Directed by list of operations (program) that tells control unit what to do

  • Uses the stored-program concept

Page 36


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THE STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT

  • Program – list of what computer needs to do for an application

  • Instruction – each individual step or operation in a program

  • Control unit – carries out one step or instruction at a time at electronic speed

Page 37


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THE STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT

Note:One of the primary measures of power of computers is the number of instructions it can execute in a given period

MIPS – millions of instructions per second executed by the control unit

MFLOPS – millions of floating point operations per second

Page 38


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THE STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT

Top Seven Desktop PCs – Power System

Page 39

Table 2.2 Benchmarking


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EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Communications within

the Computer System

Terminals

Magnetic

Tape Units

Magnetic

Disk Units

Page 40

Figure 2.9 Data Channels and Controllers


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EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Cache Memory

  • High-speed storage to temporarily hold data from main memory waiting to be processed

  • Entire blocks of data moved at one time into cache

  • Enables CPU to execute much faster

  • Also incorporated into DASD controllers

Page 40

Figure 2.10 Cache Memory


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EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Multiple Processor Configurations

  • Multiprocessor

  • Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP)

  • Vector facility

  • Parallel processor (PP)

  • Massively parallel processor (MPP)

Page 41-42


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TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Microcomputers

Page 43-44


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TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Workstation/Midrange Systems

Page 44-48


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TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Mainframe Computers

Page 48-49


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TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Supercomputers

Page 49


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