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Chapter 1.Introduction. Section I subjects studied in Physiology. 冯鉴强 教授. Concept of Physiology. Physiology belongs a branch of biology What is Physiology?.

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Chapter 1.Introduction

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Chapter 1 introduction l.jpg
Chapter 1.Introduction

Section I subjects studied in Physiology

冯鉴强 教授


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Concept of Physiology

  • Physiology belongs a branch of biology

  • What is Physiology?


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Physiology is also an experiment science .Why? activities and its mechanisms in biological body. For example: why can heart automatically beat?

  • the theories about the functional activities are based on the experiments

  • British physiologist, William Harvey set up the modern physiology. Observed that blood flows in heart and vascular system.


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Field of Physiology the first book of physiology based on experiment.

  • Each type of life has its own functional characteristics.

  • Physiology can be divided into viral physiology, bacterial physiology, cellular physiology, plant physiology, human physiology, and many more subdivisions.


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Why must the medical students study human physiology? physiology, why?

  • Medical science development is closely related to physiology.

  • (1) The classical traditional chinese medicine textbook(内经)presented much knowledge about 经络 and 脏腑 to guide the medical practice.


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Investigation levels and methods physiology diseases.

  • A) Investigation levels

    (1) Cell and Molecular level

    The basic living unit of the body is the cell, and each organ is an aggregation of many different cells held together by intercellular supporting structures.

    Cell level research to understand the function of the organ.


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Organ and system levels physical and chemical features of the big chemical molecules consisting of the cells.

  • The goals are to explore the effects of organs and systems for human body and how to performe their activities, and the affecting factors.


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Integral level are the exchange of O2 and CO2? Which factors can influence this exchange process?

  • The aims are to study interactions among organs and systems, and interaction between human body and environment.


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Experiment methods for physiological study psychological activity, these activities can affect many somatic activity(

  • (1)acute experiment(急性实验)

  • A Experiment in vitro(离体实验)

  • Advantages:

  • a) experiment condition is easy to be controlled.

  • b) To easily analyze the results


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  • B Experiment in vivo( psychological activity, these activities can affect many somatic activity(在体实验)

  • (2)Chronic experiment(慢性实验)

  • Many conditioning reflex experiments are chronic experiments.

  • Advantages:

  • a) To observe continuously the activities in conscious condition;

  • b) The findings are similar to physiological state.


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  • Shortcoming: psychological activity, these activities can affect many somatic activity(

    The conditions in the body are so complicated to analyze the results.


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How to study human Physiology well? psychological activity, these activities can affect many somatic activity(

  • Prepare the lesson before the new one

  • Combine physiological theory with the experiment

  • Perform the experiments yourself and analyze the results with theories you have learned.


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Section II Internal environment and Hemeostasis( psychological activity, these activities can affect many somatic activity(内环境和稳态)

  • <1>Internal environment of extracellular fluid(细胞外液)

  • body fluid:(1)intracellular fluid 2/3

    (2) extracellular fluid 1/3


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  • extracellular fluid: psychological activity, these activities can affect many somatic activity(

    (1)plasma 1/4

    (2)interstial fluid and fluid inside the cavaties (greater periotoneal body cavaty etc.) 3/4


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Homeostasis the cell. All cells live in essentially the same environment,the extracellular fluid called the internal environment, a term introduced more than 100 years ago by French physiologist claude Bernard.

  • used by physiologists to mean maintenance of constant conditions in the internal environment.

  • All of the organs and tissues perform function to help maintain these constant conditions.


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Homeostatis concentrations

  • the various physiological arrangements which serve to restore the normal state, once it has been disturbed.

  • Including tow meaning:

    (1)relatively stable

    (2)the control process maintaining the constant conditions of internal environment



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Nervous regulation ( concentrations神经调节)

  • Reflex: the basic active manner of nervous regulation

  • Reflex arc: including 5 parts: Receptor-->afferent->reaction center->efferent->Effector

  • Conditioning reflex and unconditioning reflex

  • Conditioning reflex: set up after birth

  • Unconditioning reflex: set up before birth


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Humoral regulation ( concentrations体液调节)

  • including:

    (1)hormonal regulation:

    the hormones secreted by endocrine glands act on the receptors of cells

    (2)local chemical regulation: paracrine


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Nervous - Humoral regulation( concentrations神经体液调节)

  • Many endocrine glands are not independent on nervous system, they are regulated directly or indirectly by nervous system, so the humoral regulation is believed as one loop of nervous system, i.e. nervous – humoral regulation


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  • For example: concentrations

    Sympathetic nerve excites->E.P and noradrenaline secreted by medulla of adrenal gland->α、ß receptors excitation in cardiac vascular system-> heart rate↑ and blood vessels contract -> BP↑


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Autoregulation( concentrations自身调节)

  • The regulation is not dependended on nervous system or homoral regulation. The cells or tissues themselves can response to stimulus.

  • For instant: vascular smooth muscles can contract when they are stimulated by stretch stimuli.



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  • To use cybernetics concept to analyze the functional regulation in human body

    (1)Non – automatic control system (非自动控制系统) belongs open loop system(开环系统)

  • Feature: controlled system does not affect the activities of control system.

  • For instant: depress reaction


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  • <2> Feedback regulation in human body– control system(反馈控制系统) belongs a closed loop system(闭环系统) automatic control (自动控制)

  • (1)Negative feedback: the more product or result you have, the less you get.

  • For example: the arterial pressure – regulating mechanism.


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(2)Positive feedback: the more product of result you have, the more you get.

  • For instance: childbirth, the generation of nerve signals.


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