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A Goal-Based Organizational Perspective on Multi-Agent Architectures † Department of Computer Science University of Toronto Toronto M5S 3G4, Canada ‡ Department of Mathematics University of Trento Trento I-38100, Italy Manuel Kolp † Paolo Giorgini ‡ John Mylopoulos †

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A Goal-Based Organizational Perspective on Multi-Agent Architectures

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A goal based organizational perspective on multi agent architectures l.jpg

A Goal-Based Organizational Perspective on Multi-Agent Architectures

† Department of Computer Science

University of Toronto

Toronto M5S 3G4, Canada

‡ Department of Mathematics

University of Trento

Trento I-38100, Italy

Manuel Kolp † Paolo Giorgini ‡ John Mylopoulos †

ATAL’01 - August 2 2001, Seattle, USA


Motivation l.jpg

Motivation

  • Multi-agent system: organization of individuals to achieve particular, possible common goals.

  • Using same concepts for requirementsandarchitectures

    • Multi-Agents architecture as organization and intentional structures

    • Coordinated autonomous components withgoalsto fulfil and social inter-dependencies ( i*)

    • Conceptsfromorganizationtheoryandmodeling

  • Ontology: 3 levels (Macro, micro, atomic)

  • Part ofTROPOS(http://www.cs.toronto.edu/km/tropos):

    • Requirements-Driven Development Methodology for Agent-Oriented Software

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


I an organizational modeling framework l.jpg

i*: an Organizational Modeling Framework

Media Shop

Goal

Resource

Task

Softgoal

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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Multi-Agent Architectures as Social Structures

  • Global architecture in terms of interconnected social components.

  • 3 levels

    • 1Macrolevel : OrganizationalStyles (Organization Theory)

      • Vertical Integration, Pyramid, Joint Venture, Structure in 5, Bidding, Hierarchical Contracting, Co-optation, Takeover

    • 2Micro level : Social Patterns (Agent, COOPIS Community)

      • Broker, Matchmaker, Contract-Net, Mediator, Monitor, Embassy, Wrapper, Master-Slave, ...

    • 3Atomic : Social and intentional concepts – i*

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


Organization theory l.jpg

Organization Theory

  • Mintzberg, Scott, Galbraith, …

  • Studies alternatives andmodelsfor (business) organizations

  • Used to model thecoordinationof business stakeholders -- individuals, physical or social systems -- to achieve common (business)goals.

  • Structure in 5, Pyramid, Takeover, Joint Venture, Cooptation, Hierarchical Contracting, Vertical Integration, Bidding, Merger, Equity Agreement, Virtual Organization, …

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


Structure in 5 l.jpg

Structure in 5

  • Strategic and logistic components found in organizations.

  • Operational core:basic operations -- the input, processing, output associated with running the organization.

  • Strategicapex: executive,strategic decisions.

  • Support : Assists the operation core for non-operational services outside the basic flow of operational procedures.

  • Technostructure : standardizes the behavior of other components, help the system adapt to its environment.

  • Middle line : Actors who join the apex to the core.

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


Structure in 5 in i and telos l.jpg

Structure in 5 in i* and Telos

TELL CLASS StructureIn5MetaClass

IN Class WITH

/*Class is a MetaMetaClass*/

attribute

name: String

part, exclusivePart, dependentPart

ApexMetaClass: Class

CoordinationMetaClass: Class

MiddleAgencyMetaClass: Class

SupportMetaClass: Class

OperationalCoreMetaClass: Class

END StructureIn5MetaClass

In i*

In Telos

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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Vertical Integration & Joint Venture

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


Problems l.jpg

Non Organizational (Classical) Architecture Styles

Problems

A mobile robot layered architecture

Information exchange not always straight-forward

Often need to establish direct communication

Data and control hierarchies not separated

Prevent the dynamic manipulation of components

From [Software Architecture: Perspective on an

Emerging Discipline, Shaw, Garland, 96]

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


Mobile robot architecture structure in 5 l.jpg

Mobile Robot Architecture: Structure-in-5

More distributed architecture

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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Software Quality Attributes

Predictability, Security, Adaptability, Cooperativity, Competitivity, Availability, Integrity, Modularity, Aggregability

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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Example: A User 2 On-line Buying System

  • Media taxonomy

    • on-line catalog

    • DBMS

  • E-Shopping Cart

    • Check In

    • Buying

    • Check Out

  • Search Engine

    • catalog browser

    • Keywords

    • full-text

  • Billing Processor

    • $ transactions

    • orders

  • Multimedia

    • description

    • samples

Security, Availability, Adaptability, …

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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Goal Analysis: Selecting System Architecture

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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A Joint-Venture E-commerce Architecture

E-business styles: on web, protocols, technologies

Not on business processes, NFRs

No organization of the architecture, conceptual high-level perspective

From Security, Availability, Adaptability

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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Social Patterns

Monitor

Matchmaker

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


Slide16 l.jpg

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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Assigning Agent Roles to Actors

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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Conclusion

  • Multi-Agents architectures described with concepts from requirements and organization modeling associal and intentional structures

  • -> Narrows the gap requirements / architecture

  • Best suited to open, dynamic and distributed applications andorganization information systems

  • Ontology on 3 levels:

    • Macro: Organizational Styles, Micro:Social Patterns, Atomic:i* notions

  • In progress

    • Formalizing the styles, patterns, Instantiation of a style, pattern ??

    • Decision Algorithms,

    • From Actors to Agents

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001


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