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A Goal-Based Organizational Perspective on Multi-Agent Architectures † Department of Computer Science University of Toronto Toronto M5S 3G4, Canada ‡ Department of Mathematics University of Trento Trento I-38100, Italy Manuel Kolp † Paolo Giorgini ‡ John Mylopoulos †

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a goal based organizational perspective on multi agent architectures

A Goal-Based Organizational Perspective on Multi-Agent Architectures

† Department of Computer Science

University of Toronto

Toronto M5S 3G4, Canada

‡ Department of Mathematics

University of Trento

Trento I-38100, Italy

Manuel Kolp † Paolo Giorgini ‡ John Mylopoulos †

ATAL’01 - August 2 2001, Seattle, USA

motivation
Motivation
  • Multi-agent system: organization of individuals to achieve particular, possible common goals.
  • Using same concepts for requirementsandarchitectures
    • Multi-Agents architecture as organization and intentional structures
    • Coordinated autonomous components withgoalsto fulfil and social inter-dependencies ( i*)
    • Conceptsfromorganizationtheoryandmodeling
  • Ontology: 3 levels (Macro, micro, atomic)
  • Part ofTROPOS(http://www.cs.toronto.edu/km/tropos):
    • Requirements-Driven Development Methodology for Agent-Oriented Software

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

i an organizational modeling framework
i*: an Organizational Modeling Framework

Media Shop

Goal

Resource

Task

Softgoal

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

multi agent architectures as social structures
Multi-Agent Architectures as Social Structures
  • Global architecture in terms of interconnected social components.
  • 3 levels
    • 1Macrolevel : OrganizationalStyles (Organization Theory)
      • Vertical Integration, Pyramid, Joint Venture, Structure in 5, Bidding, Hierarchical Contracting, Co-optation, Takeover
    • 2Micro level : Social Patterns (Agent, COOPIS Community)
      • Broker, Matchmaker, Contract-Net, Mediator, Monitor, Embassy, Wrapper, Master-Slave, ...
    • 3Atomic : Social and intentional concepts – i*

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

organization theory
Organization Theory
  • Mintzberg, Scott, Galbraith, …
  • Studies alternatives andmodelsfor (business) organizations
  • Used to model thecoordinationof business stakeholders -- individuals, physical or social systems -- to achieve common (business)goals.
  • Structure in 5, Pyramid, Takeover, Joint Venture, Cooptation, Hierarchical Contracting, Vertical Integration, Bidding, Merger, Equity Agreement, Virtual Organization, …

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

structure in 5
Structure in 5
  • Strategic and logistic components found in organizations.
  • Operational core:basic operations -- the input, processing, output associated with running the organization.
  • Strategicapex: executive,strategic decisions.
  • Support : Assists the operation core for non-operational services outside the basic flow of operational procedures.
  • Technostructure : standardizes the behavior of other components, help the system adapt to its environment.
  • Middle line : Actors who join the apex to the core.

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

structure in 5 in i and telos
Structure in 5 in i* and Telos

TELL CLASS StructureIn5MetaClass

IN Class WITH

/*Class is a MetaMetaClass*/

attribute

name: String

part, exclusivePart, dependentPart

ApexMetaClass: Class

CoordinationMetaClass: Class

MiddleAgencyMetaClass: Class

SupportMetaClass: Class

OperationalCoreMetaClass: Class

END StructureIn5MetaClass

In i*

In Telos

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

vertical integration joint venture
Vertical Integration & Joint Venture

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

problems

Non Organizational (Classical) Architecture Styles

Problems

A mobile robot layered architecture

Information exchange not always straight-forward

Often need to establish direct communication

Data and control hierarchies not separated

Prevent the dynamic manipulation of components

From [Software Architecture: Perspective on an

Emerging Discipline, Shaw, Garland, 96]

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

mobile robot architecture structure in 5
Mobile Robot Architecture: Structure-in-5

More distributed architecture

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

software quality attributes
Software Quality Attributes

Predictability, Security, Adaptability, Cooperativity, Competitivity, Availability, Integrity, Modularity, Aggregability

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

example a user 2 on line buying system
Example: A User 2 On-line Buying System
  • Media taxonomy
    • on-line catalog
    • DBMS
  • E-Shopping Cart
    • Check In
    • Buying
    • Check Out
  • Search Engine
    • catalog browser
    • Keywords
    • full-text
  • Billing Processor
    • $ transactions
    • orders
  • Multimedia
    • description
    • samples

Security, Availability, Adaptability, …

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

goal analysis selecting system architecture
Goal Analysis: Selecting System Architecture

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

a joint venture e commerce architecture
A Joint-Venture E-commerce Architecture

E-business styles: on web, protocols, technologies

Not on business processes, NFRs

No organization of the architecture, conceptual high-level perspective

From Security, Availability, Adaptability

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

social patterns
Social Patterns

Monitor

Matchmaker

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

assigning agent roles to actors
Assigning Agent Roles to Actors

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Multi-Agents architectures described with concepts from requirements and organization modeling associal and intentional structures
  • -> Narrows the gap requirements / architecture
  • Best suited to open, dynamic and distributed applications andorganization information systems
  • Ontology on 3 levels:
    • Macro: Organizational Styles, Micro:Social Patterns, Atomic:i* notions
  • In progress
    • Formalizing the styles, patterns, Instantiation of a style, pattern ??
    • Decision Algorithms,
    • From Actors to Agents

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

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