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Objectives. Understand the setbacks that the Allies faced in 1917 and 1918. Discover how American forces contributed to the Allied victory. Explain the agreement that ended the fighting. Terms and People. convoy – a large group of merchant vessels sailing together
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How did the arrival of American troops in Europe affect the course of the war?
After Congress declared war, it took over a year for the U.S. to engage in major battles.
American soldiers quickly helped bring about an overwhelming Allied victory.
In 1917, U.S. forces prepared to go overseas. The U.S. Army chose John J. Pershing to lead American troops in Europe.
He wanted American troops to fight in separate units under U.S. command.
This would show the world that the U.S. could stand on its own.
Meanwhile, German submarines attacked ships bringing supplies from the U.S. to the Allies.
More than 11 million tons of Allied shipments were destroyed and nearly 14,000 people were killed.
Allied naval leaders had destroyers sail in convoy with supply ships for protection.
Allied ship losses fell dramatically.
U.S. troops joined the Allies in June 1917, but the Allies continued to face setbacks.
Russia withdrew from the war and made peace with Germany.
In March 1918, Germany broke through the Allied lines.
The Italians were defeated by the Central Powers at Caparetto.
On November 7, 1917, a radical group called the Bolsheviks seized control of Russia.
The new leader, Vladimir Lenin, embraced the ideas of communism.
Social classes andprivate property should be eliminated.
Workers should unite to overthrow the ruling class.
Lenin pulled Russia out of the war and made peace with Germany.
Russia gave Germany land on the Western Front.
Germany moved many troops into its new territory.
In March 1918, Germany began a series of attacks called the “peace offensive.” In June, the Germans broke through Allied lines in Belgium and France.
Pershing pledged that U.S. troops would now fight under French command.
U.S. troops arrived to reinforce the Allies.
In July, the Allies defeated the Germans in France.
The Allies began an offensive.
By November, they were advancing on Germany.
Germany’s leaders realized that their cause was lost. They decided to seek an armistice.
France and Britain wanted to impose a harsh settlement.
President Wilson proposed a peace plan based on international cooperation.
France and Britain dictated the terms of the armistice.
Cancel its peace treaty with Russia
Pull back its troops from the Western Front
Hand over all of its U-boats
President Wilson also demanded that Germany’s leader, Kaiser Wilhelm II, step down.
The Kaiser fled, and Germany became a republic.
The war had ended. Soldiers could hardly believe it.
Soldiers returned home. Millions had been severely wounded.
It cost the lives of 10 million military personnel.
Some historians believe just as many civilians died.
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