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The Hip Joint Exercises and Injuries Exercises for the Hip Joint Good ExRx Qustionable Bodybuilding Terminology Compound An exercise that involves two or more joint movements. Isolated An exercise that involves just one discernible joint movement. Terminology Closed Chain

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The Hip Joint

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The hip joint l.jpg
The Hip Joint

Exercises and Injuries


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Exercises for the Hip Joint

  • Good

    • ExRx

  • Qustionable

    • Bodybuilding


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Terminology

  • Compound

    • An exercise that involves two or more joint movements.

  • Isolated

    • An exercise that involves just one discernible joint movement.


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Terminology

  • Closed Chain

    • An exercise in which the end segment of the exercised limb is fixed, or the end is supporting the weight. Most compound exercises are closed chain movements.

  • Open Chain

    • An exercise in which the end segment of the exercised limb is not fixed, or the end is not supporting the weight. Most isolated exercise are open chain movements.

















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Stretching

  • Opposite action of the muscle

  • For example, to stretch a hip extensor muscle, perform hip flexion.








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Pathology

  • Twisting, running, jumping

  • Muscles most often involved:

    • Adductor longus

    • Iliopsoas

    • Gracilis

    • Sartorius


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Pathology

  • Strain – pulled muscle

  • Tendinitis – inflammation of a tendon

  • Avulsion fractures

  • Stress fracture near the pubic crest or femoral neck


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Causes

  • Sudden change in direction

  • Kicking across your body (What action of the hip does this require?)

  • Slipping while changing directions

  • Overuse


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Treatment

  • Ice for 20 to 30 minutes every 3 to 4 hours

  • NSAID

  • Supportive bandage

  • Stretching e.g. butterfly stretch

  • Patience. Wait until…

    • full range of motion

    • full strength

    • run with no pain

    • change direction with no pain


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HIP POINTER

  • A hip pointer is a contusion to the iliac crest, the surrounding soft tissue structures, or the greater trochanter of the femur.

  • Typically, the injury is caused by a direct blow or fall.

  • Hip pointer injuries occur most commonly in contact sports (eg, football, hockey), but they can also occur in noncontact sports (eg, volleyball) as a result of a fall onto the hip or side.

  • Pain and tenderness in this region can limit an athlete's participation in sports.



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Hip Pointer

  • Initial treatment consists of icing, compression and rest.

  • Anti-inflammatory medication and gentle stretching should begin at about 48 hours after the injury.

  • A personalized program of strengthening, flexibility and coordination exercises is then designed for the patient.

  • If the bruising of the muscle and bone from the injury is severe, however, return to full activity may take several weeks.



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Osteoarthritis

  • It is a chronic disease in which the cartilage in a joint deteriorates or breaks down.

  • There are two categories of osteoarthritis, primary and secondary.

  • Primary osteoarthritis appears without any apparent cause, usually as a result of aging.

  • Secondary osteoarthritis occurs in joints that have sustained injuries, experienced infections or fractures.

  • Obesity can also cause secondary osteoarthritis due to the added pressure on weight bearing joints.


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Osteoarthritis

  • Depending on the joints involved, swimming, walking, and cycling (perhaps on a stationary exercise bicycle) are often the best exercises for people with osteoarthritis.

  • Why these exercises?

  • Common sense safety precautions :

    • Warm up

    • Medication?

    • Ice arthritic joint for 15 to 20 minutes after a workout

    • If the joints are more painful that night or the next few days, suspend the workouts



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Dislocation

  • Any traumatic hip dislocation requires immediate treatment, ideally within six hours or less.

  • This is because a traumatic hip dislocation interrupts the normal blood circulation to the top of the femur, depriving the bone of its vital oxygen supply.

  • Unless the dislocated hip is reduced (replaced in its socket) promptly, and normal circulation is restored within the hip joint, there can be permanent damage to the head of the femur. This permanent damage is called avascular necrosis.


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Dislocation

  • January 13, 1991, Bo Jackson partially dislocated his hip, tearing the blood vessels to the neck and head of the femur.

  • X-rays revealed a small fracture to the posterior of the hip socket.

  • Four weeks later, scans of the joint showed the beginning of vascular necrosis, in which the bone cells die because of deficient blood supply, and chondrolysis, in which cartilage degenerates.

  • Eventually Jackson would require a total hip replacement which relieves him of pain and allows him full range of motion.



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Causes

1. Osteoarthritis is perhaps the most common cause for hip replacement surgery.

2. Avascular necrosis is another cause of degeneration of the hip joint.


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Causes

3. Abnormalities of hip joint function resulting from fractures of the hip and some types of hip conditions that appear in childhood can also lead to degeneration many years after an injury.



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Parts

  • Acetabular component – metal shell with plastic inner socket

  • Femoral component – metal stem with a metal or ceramic head


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Types

  • Cemented – epoxy cement holds metal to bone


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Types

  • Uncemented – mesh allows bone to grow into the prothesis



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Removing the femoral head

  • Dislocate the hip joint

  • Cut femoral neck with power saw


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Reaming the Acetabulum

  • Power drill and special reamer remove the cartilage

  • Bone is formed to fit the metal shell








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Complications

  • Thrombophlebitis

  • Infection in the joint

  • Dislocation of the joint

  • Loosening of the joint


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Thrombophlebitis

  • Thrombophlebitis occurs when the blood in the large veins of the leg forms blood clots within the veins.

  • This may cause the leg to swell and become warm to the touch and painful.

  • If the blood clots in the veins break apart they can travel to the lung.

  • Once in the lung they get lodged in the capillaries of the lung and cut off the blood supply to a portion of the lung.


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Infection

  • Infection can be a very serious complication following an artificial joint replacement.

  • The chance of getting an infection following total hip replacement is probably around 1 in 100 total hip replacements.

  • An infection can spread into the artificial joint from other infected areas.

  • Your surgeon may want to make sure that you take antibiotics when you have dental work, or surgical procedures on your bladder or colon to reduce the risk of spreading germs to your new joint.


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Dislocation

  • Just like your real hip, an artificial hip can dislocate.

  • Dislocation is when the ball comes out of the socket.

  • There is a greater risk of dislocation right after surgery, before the muscles and tendons around the new joint have healed. However, there is always a risk of dislocation.

  • A hip that dislocates more than once may have to be revised, which means another operation, to make the joint more stable.


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Loosening

  • The major reason that artificial joints eventually fail continues to be loosening of the joint where the metal or cement meets the bone.

  • Most joints will eventually loosen and require a revision.

  • Hopefully, you can expect 12-15 years of service from your artificial hip.

  • Once the pain becomes unbearable, another operation will probably be required to replace the hip.



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Background

  • 25 million Americans, 80% of them women

  • 1.5 million fractures a year

  • 500,000 fractures are in the thorasic and lumbar vertebrae

  • 250,000 fractures are hip fractures

  • 15-20% of hip fractures are fatal

  • $18 billion annually


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Hip Fractures and Osteoporosis - AAOS

  • Hip fracture disease, one of the most serious consequences of osteoporosis, is occurring at an epidemic rate in North America.

  • More than 350,000 Americans fracture a hip each year.

  • The current annual cost is more than $9.8 billion.

  • Ninety percent of hip fracture patients are 65 years of age or older.

  • Accounts for more hospital days, by far, than any other musculoskeletal injury.


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How serious is the problem?

  • In the United States, one of every three adults 65 years old or older falls each year.1,2

  • Falls are the leading cause of injury deaths among people 65 years and older.3

  • In 1998, about 9,600 people over the age of 65 died from fall-related injuries.4

  • Of all fall deaths, more than 60% involve people who are 75 years or older.3

  • Fall-related death rates are higher among men than women and differ by race. White men have the highest death rate, followed by white women, black men and black women.3


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