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SUMMARY – 18 TH CENTURY. IDEAS – Enlightenment & rationalist Criticism ART – 3 genres: Rococo, Neo-Classical, Bourgeois (Genre)

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SUMMARY – 18TH CENTURY

  • IDEAS – Enlightenment & rationalist Criticism

  • ART – 3 genres: Rococo, Neo-Classical, Bourgeois (Genre)

  • MUSIC – Genres such as the SYMPHONY and the STRING QUARTET emerge, all emphasizing CLARITY of musical ideas and the organization of CONTRAST, as exemplified by SONATA FORM

  • key composers: HAYDN, MOZART & early Beethoven


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Classical Music

1770-1820


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Mozart

Only 35 years on the planet


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Mozart listening example

first movement from Symphony No. 35 in D Major, K. 385, "Haffner"

-- begins with a huge leap; there is a variety of articulations and textures

-- clarity of texture and clarity of musical ideas

-- sonata form: the modulation to the second theme/key is complete at about 1:30; the development section starts at about 2:34; the recapitulation begins at about 3:29.

-- major key

-- the development section plays with the contrast of minor keys to the home key of the piece, which is major


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Mozart

40+ symphonies

string quartets

piano sonatas

27 piano concertos

masses

20 operas


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Opera evolution

Baroque

recitative aria (solo) recitative aria recitative . . .

action emote action emote action . . .

Classical/Mozart

recitative aria (solo) recitative ensemble . . .

action emote action emotion & action ...

contrasting emotions


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Mozart and opera

-- all voice ranges used (instead of the Baroque’s treble + bass preference)

-- ensembles (groups of solo voices) now contrasted with arias and recitative

-- several operas about contemporary characters, not mythological figures or ancient history from Rome or Greece (although he did a few of those, too)

-- biting social commentary: the decadent aristocracy is compared to the normal, happy, healthy lust and love of the common folk

-- recitative still used

-- some in German with spoken dialogue


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Mozart and opera

The three Da Ponte operas:

Marriage of Figaro (1786)

(play by Beaumarchais)

Don Giovanni (1787)

Così Fan Tutte (1790)

Which one to choose as most representative?

(libretto = “little book,” the story and words for an opera)

Da Ponte – librettist


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Mozart viewing example

Cosi fan Tutte (they all do it)

3 pairs of voices – symmetry of design appeals to the Neo-Classical mind

Rococo moral stance

Rarely performed in the 1800s – now regarded as one of Mozart’s finest operas

Ends with an appeal for forgiveness & HUMAN REASON


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Fragonard,The Swing,1769

Rococo


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Petit Trianon, Versailles, France 1764 (Louis XVI)NEO-CLASSICAL


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Mozart viewing example

Don Giovanni

Don Juan as anti-hero – critique of aristocracy

(a proud anti-hero, though – perhaps a reflection of the Enlightenment attitude about religion?)

Rarely performed in the 1800s – now regarded as one of Mozart’s finest operas

1787


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The Marriage of Figaro(Le Nozze di Figaro)

  • celebration of “the common people” v. the decadent aristocracy

  • 1786

Bourgeois (Genre)

Chardin The Prayer before Meal1744


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Mozart listening example

-- finale from Act II of The Marriage of Figaro

-- an ensemble scene (six voices)

-- contrasting emotions presented simultaneously (compare that to the Baroque ideal aesthetic of Affect, one mood or emotion per piece)


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SUMMARY – 18TH CENTURY

  • IDEAS – Enlightenment & rationalist Criticism

  • ART – 3 genres: Rococo, Neo-Classical, Bourgeois (Genre)

  • MUSIC – Genres such as the SYMPHONY and the STRING QUARTET emerge, all emphasizing CLARITY of musical ideas and the organization of CONTRAST, as exemplified by SONATA FORM

  • key composers: HAYDN, MOZART & early Beethoven


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Date data

Caravaggio, The Calling of St Matthew; Baroque beginnings

1600 –

1742 –

Handel’s Messiah oratorio

1776 – Amer. Rev.

1787 –

J.L. DavidDeath of SocratesMozart, Don Giovanni

1789 – French Rev.


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Mozart viewing example

Cosi fan Tutte (they all do it)

3 pairs of voices – symmetry of design appeals to the Classical mind


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