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Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia. Chesapeake Colonies Maryland Virginia Still part of the Southern Colonies. s.colonies. Southern Colonies Indentured servants slavery to work the large plantations rice, tobacco and cotton fertile soil

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Southern Colonies

Maryland

Virginia

North Carolina

South Carolina

Georgia


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  • Chesapeake Colonies

  • Maryland

  • Virginia

  • Still part of the Southern Colonies


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s.colonies

  • Southern Colonies

  • Indentured servants

  • slavery to work the large plantations

  • rice, tobacco and cotton

  • fertile soil

  • cities: Charleston, Savannah & Baltimore

  • Maryland

  • Virginia

  • North Carolina

  • South Carolina

  • Georgia


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Restoration Colonies

  • Restoration refers to the restoration to power of an English monarch, Charles II, in 1660 following a brief period of Puritan rule under Oliver Cromwell

    • Carolinas, Georgia, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware


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The Carolinas

  • As a reward for helping him gain the throne, Charles II granted a huge tract of land between VA and Spanish Florida to 8 nobles in 1663

  • The original proprietorship was broken into 2 royal colonies in 1729


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Settling South Carolina

  • Charles town was formed in 1670 by a few colonists from England and some planters from the island of Barbados

  • Initially, the economy was based on trading furs and providing food for the West Indies

  • By the middle of the 18th century, large rice-growing plantations worked by African slaves created an economy and culture that resembled the West Indies


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  • Although Carolina was geographically closer to the Chesapeake colonies, it was culturally closer to the West Indies in the seventeenth century since its early settlers—both blacks and whites—came from Barbados.

  • South Carolina retained close ties to the West Indies for more than a century, long after many of its subsequent settlers came from England, Ireland, France, and elsewhere.


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Democratic North Carolina

  • Farmers from VA and New England established small, self-sufficient tobacco farms

  • Region had few good harbors and poor transportation so there were fewer large plantations and less reliance on slavery

  • By the 18th century, the colony earned a reputation for democratic views and autonomy from British control


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Georgia – The Last Colony

  • A proprietary colony and the only colony to receive direct financial support from the home government in London

  • Set up for 2 reasons

    • Defensive buffer

    • Rid England’s overcrowded jails of debtors

  • Special Regulations

    • Absolute ban on drinking rum

    • Prohibition of slavery

  • Colony did not thrive because of the constant threat of Spanish attack

  • Taken over by the British government in 1752 when Oglethorpe and his group gave up

    • Bans on slavery and rum dropped

    • Colony grew slowly by adopting the plantation system of South Carolina


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CHART: THIRTEEN COLONIES

Colony/DatePerson ResponsibleWhy FoundedGoverned/Owner


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The Founding of New England

  • Contrast with Virginia: Different environment & key role of religion for Puritans

  • Congregationalists & Separatists

  • Pilgrims (the latter) found Plymouth (1620)

    • Fled Religious and Political Persecution


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  • James I (1603 - 1625)

  • James I was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He had become James VI of Scotland after Mary lost her head, and he became James I when he took over England.

  • He was the first to call himself "King of Great Britain." James struggled with Parliament - he thought he ruled by divine right.

  • There was a new English translation of Bible - the "King James Bible.“

  • He persecuted Pilgrims because they would not recognize him as the religious leader of the Church of England.

  • So, they became a political risk as well.


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MAYFLOWER COMPACT

  • 41 Male passengers on the Mayflower formed into a “civil body politic”, signed a compact promising to write and obey "just and equal laws ... for the general good of the colony."

  • The compact brought an element of democracy to America and was an example of the practice of self-government in the colonies.

  • All the colonies practiced some form of self-government…………


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PILGRIMS

Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form Massachusetts Bay Colony


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PURITANS

  • John Winthrop, founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

  • Middle class settlers, educated and organized

  • Successful as fur traders, fishermen and shipbuilders

  • Ruled as “Bible Commonwealth” or theocracy

  • New England Way = Puritan covenant with God

  • To establish holy society----”city upon a hill”


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  • Charles I (1625 - 1649)

  • Son of James I and ruled by divine right.

  • Conflicts with Parliament = much resistance to his policies.

  • Forced to sign the Petition of Right

    • no taxes without Parliament’s consent;

    • civilians didn't have to house soldiers;

    • no military law in peacetime

    • Due process of law

  • In 1629, Charles dissolved Parliament and ruled until 1640.

  • Persecuted Puritans led to the Puritan Migration.

  • 1642–1651: English Civil Wars, "Cavaliers" (Anglicans, royalists, nobility, Catholics) vs. the "Roundheads" (Puritans and Middle Class).

  • Charles I was beheaded in 1649-------Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth.


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PURITAN MIGRATION

1629 to 1640


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PURITANS

  • Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form Massachusetts Bay Colony

  • Communities well organized

  • Established towns

  • Protestant Work Ethic

  • Family values


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  • New England

  • Massachusetts

  • New Hampshire

  • Rhode Island

  • Connecticut


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  • New England

  • good harbors

  • small farms and towns

  • trade centered around harbors

  • hilly, forested and shallow soil

  • cities: Boston

    • 15,000 – 1750

  • fishing, lumber and trapping

  • Family, religion and community

  • Massachusetts

  • New Hampshire

  • Rhode Island

  • Connecticut


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Building the Bay Colony

  • Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen” – adult Puritan men of Congregational church (about 40% of men in the colony ~ higher percentage than in England)

  • However, in town government, all property-owning males could vote in town meetings

    • Direct democracy----self government

  • Since idea of government was to enforce God’s laws, religious leaders (e.g. John Cotton) were very influential


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Building the Bay Colony

  • Clergy were barred from formal political office – early “church/state separation”

  • Puritan ideas: “calling” to God’s work, Protestant work ethic, limited worldly pleasures, fear of hell


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Trouble in Bible Colony(Puritan Rebels)

  • Social harmony when only Puritans, but that didn’t last

  • Quakers: fines, floggings, banishments, executions

  • Anne Hutchinson: truly saved don’t need to obey (“antinomianism” the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture)

    • Banished from Mass. Bay

    • Travels to Rhode Island with her children and helps organize this settlement


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Trouble in Bible Colony(Puritan Rebels)

Roger Williams

  • Roger Williams: extreme Separatist, denied right of civil government to govern religious behavior, challenged charter for illegally taking land from Indians

  • Avoided exile to England by fleeing to Rhode Island where in 1636, aided by Indians, he started a colony in the Providence area

  • Started the first Baptist church

  • Allowed complete freedom of religion


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New England Spreads Out

  • 1635: Hartford (Conn.) founded by Dutch/English settlers. Some Puritans moved westward to Connecticut with Rev. Thomas Hooker

  • 1639: Fundamental Orders – modern constitution established democratic government

  • 1641: New Hampshire taken over by overly aggressive Bay Colony

  • 1679: Annoyed by greed of Bay Colony, king arbitrarily separates it, becomes royal colony


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Half-Way Covenant

  • 1st generation’s Puritan zeal diluted over time

  • Problem of declining church membership

  • 1662: Half-Way Covenant – partial membership to those not yet converted (usually children/ grandchildren of members)

  • Eventually all welcomed to church, erased distinction of “elect”


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KING PHILIP'S WAR

Massasoit’s son, Metacom (King Phillip) formed Indian alliance – attacked throughout New England, especially frontier

English towns were attacked and burned -unknown numbers of Indians died

1676: War ended, Metacom executed, lasting defeat for Indians


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DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND

  • Goal:

  • Bring colonies under England’s rule

  • Defend colonies from French & Indians

  • Stop colonial smuggling

  • Sir Edmund Andros, King’s

  • Representative restricted

  • colonies:

  • Town meetings, the press, & schools

  • Revoked land titles

  • Taxed without consent of the governed

  • Collapses after Glorious

  • Revolution

Forced by King James I

All NE Colonies, NJ & NY


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  • James II was Charles' son, a Catholic.

  • He had a Protestant daughter, Mary, and a Catholic son.

  • Parliament didn't want his son taking over, so they gave the crown to Mary and her husband, William III of Orange.

James II(1685 - 1688)


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  • This was known as the "Glorious Revolution." (Revolution because they overthrew the last Catholic monarch, Glorious because no one died.)

  • Parliament put more restrictions on the monarch.

  • The king couldn't make or suspend laws, have an army during peacetime, and the king couldn't interfere with freedom of speech in Parliament.

  • English Bill of Rights


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  • Charles II was the son of Charles I.

  • Because his father had been killed, Charles II had the ravens caged so they couldn't leave.

  • He was a "Merry Monarch," a very popular king.

  • Charles II encouraged religious toleration.

  • The “Restoration Colonies” were settled during his reign.

Charles II (1660 - 1685)


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CHART: THIRTEEN COLONIES

Colony/DatePerson ResponsibleWhy FoundedGoverned/Owner


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Middle Colonies

New York

Pennsylvania

New Jersey

Delaware


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Middle Colonies

  • Middle Colonies

  • River systems

  • Valleys – fertile soil

  • ."bread basket" large farms - surplus food

  • diverse population

  • manufacturing

  • iron mines, glass, shipyards, and paper

  • Cities: New York and Philadelphia

  • New York

  • Pennsylvania

  • New Jersey

  • Delaware


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America, a “melting pot”


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New Netherland (New York)

  • 1609: Henry Hudson sailing for Dutch East India Company sails into Hudson river looking for passage through continent ~ claims area for Dutch

  • 1623-24: Dutch West India Company establishes New Netherland

  • Goal: quick-profit fur trade

  • “Bought” Manhattan from Indians

  • Company town: no religious tolerance or free speech, harsh governors


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New Netherlands &New Sweden


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New Netherland

  • Colony had aristocratic influence (a member of a ruling class or of the nobility) with large feudal estates (“patroonships” – one larger than Rhode Island)

  • Very diverse population: in 1640s missionary observed 18 languages


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Dutch Conflicts

  • Dutch cruelties to Indians brought retaliatory massacres – Dutch built wall (Wall Street)

  • Connecticut rejected Dutch settlers


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Dutch in New York

  • English immigration to New Netherland resulted in 1/2 total population - English regarded Dutch as intruders

  • Charles II brazenly granted area to his brother (Duke of York)

  • English squadron comes, New Netherland leader, Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New York had no defense; surrendered, renamed New York

An Angry Peter Stuyvesant

Duke of York


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New Jersey

  • James gave 2 friends, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, the section of New York located between the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1664

    • He felt the territory of New York was too large to administer

  • Both proprietors allowed religious freedom and an assembly in addition to giving generous land offers to attract settlers

Lord John Berkeley


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Penn's Holy Experiment

  • Mid-1600s: religious dissenters named Quakers arose in England

  • Hated by authorities because they refused to pay taxes to Church of England, refused to take oaths, refused military service


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Penn's Holy Experiment

  • Penn’s family owed a large debt from the British Crown. Given a land grant in 1681. Pennsylvania

  • Penn governs the colony, unusual for a proprietor

  • Advertised in Europe, promising land & freedoms

  • Frame of Government (guaranteed elected assembly), Charter of Liberties (freedom of worship, open immigration), fair treatment of Native Americans


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Penn's Holy Experiment

Penn, more than any other individual founder or colonist, proved to be the chosen vessel through which the stream of demand for respect for individual rights was to flow so richly into our American reservoir of precious ideals.

That an example may be set up to the nations as ... a holy experiment.  William Penn

All men have a natural and infeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences; no man can of right be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience, and no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious establishment or modes of worship. - William Penn, Declaration of Rights


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Pennsylvania & Neighbors

  • Penn bought land from Indians ~ treatment of them so fair that Quakers went to them unarmed and even employed Indians as babysitters

  • However, as non-Quaker immigrants came, they were less tolerant of Indians (Scots-Irish)

  • Liberal features: elected assembly, no tax-supported church, freedom of worship, only 2 capital crimes


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Delaware

  • Penn granted the lower 3 counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly

  • Governor was the same as Pennsylvania’s until the American Revolution

William Penn


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Chart 13a

CHART: THIRTEEN COLONIES

Colony/DatePerson ResponsibleWhy FoundedGoverned/Owner


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