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Class Slides Set 16A The Skull

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Class Slides Set 16A The Skull. Many changes take place in the skull . . . The skull . . . the “occipital condyles” have moved forward to an intermediary position . . . The skull . . . occipital condyles = the hinges on which the skull articulates with the spine. The skull . . .

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the skull
The skull . . .

the “occipital condyles” have moved forward to an intermediary position . . .

the skull1
The skull . . .

occipital condyles =

the hinges on which the skull articulates with the spine

the skull2
The skull . . .

foramen magnum =

the opening through which the spinal cord passes from the “cranium”

the skull3
The skull . . .

the “foramen magnum” has also moved forward and downward . . .

slide9

Position of the foramen magnum in

(a) a human and (b) a chimpanzee.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 203

the skull4
The skull . . .

cranium =

the skull without

the lower jaw

the skull5
The skull . . .

the lower jaw =

mandible

slide17

Modern human cranium.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 432

the skull6
The skull . . .

the eyes are placed at the front of the head and operate together . . .

  • this results in stereoscopic vision and

3-D depth perception

slide19

Overlapping visual fields (binocular vision) in primates

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 115

slide20

The skull of a gibbon (left) compared to that of a red wolf (right)

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 116

the skull7
The skull . . .

diurnal primates also have color perception

  • diurnal primates are those active during the day, as are apes, monkeys, and humans . . .
the skull8
The skull . . .

some adult male apes have a sharp crest along the top of the skull – “sagittal crest”

the skull9
The skull . . .

heavy chewing and neck muscles attach to the sagittal crest

slide29

Satittal crests and temporal muscle orientations.

Hominid compared to pongid.

(Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red.)

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 245

slide30

The “black skull,” WT 17000

Australopithecus aethiopicus

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 237

the skull10
The skull . . .

“sagittal ridge” – a smaller slightly raised ridge running down the center of the skull

(aka “sagittal keel”)

slide32

Homo erectus

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 227

the skull11
The skull . . .

most apes have a “supraorbital ridge” over the eyes

the skull12
The skull . . .

supraorbital ridge =

a marked bulge of bone across the region over the eyes

slide35

Satittal crests and temporal muscle orientations.

Hominid compared to pongid.

(Line of greatest muscle force is shown in red.)

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th ed., p. 245

the skull13
The skull . . .

modern humans have cranial base flexure

(basicranium) (bend)

slide39

Modern human cranium.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th ed., p. 432

the skull14
The skull . . .

flexure in the base of the skull (the basicranium)

seems to relate to

a low larynx . . .

slide41

Larynx / Pharynx

Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 377

the skull15
The skull . . .

larynx –

the voice box

(which contains the vocal cords)

the skull16
The skull . . .

and a low larynx is associated with a longer pharynx . . .

the skull17
The skull . . .

pharynx –

the throat above the larynx

slide46

Larynx / Pharynx

Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 377

slide48

Larynx / Pharynx

Humankind Emerging, 7th ed., p. 377

the skull18
The skull . . .

and a longer pharynx is a feature associated with human speech

the skull19
The skull . . .

noses are elevated in humans, and are separated by the septum into two chambers

the skull20
The skull . . .

human upper lips are relatively short, and are never as thin as apes’ lips

slide55

End of Class Slides Set # 16A

Continue on to Set # 16B

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