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Semantics in Japanese Kanji 富士山 登山 [tozan] climbing 火山 [kazan] volcano Kanji Around 50 000 kanji 5th century from China 3000 in daily usage 200 kanji account 50 % 1000 kanji 90 % 2000 kanji 99% Varying pronunciations due to historical reasons: on-yomi (chinese reading)

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Semantics in japanese kanji l.jpg
Semantics in Japanese Kanji

富士山

登山

[tozan]

climbing

火山

[kazan]

volcano


Kanji l.jpg
Kanji

  • Around 50 000 kanji

    • 5th century from China

  • 3000 in daily usage

    • 200 kanji account 50 %

    • 1000 kanji 90 %

    • 2000 kanji 99%

  • Varying pronunciations due to historical reasons:

    • on-yomi (chinese reading)

    • kun-yomi (japanese reading)


  • O kuda sa shita shimo kun ka ge on under lower down inner inferior latter half l.jpg

    shita/shimo =under, down, below

    下 moto = under

    …下 ...ka = under..., below...

    (-> 影響下 = under the influence)

    下りる oriru = descend, get down

    下ろす orosu = take/put down

    下さい Kudasai = give to me, grant to me

    下さる kudasaru = give, grant, bestow

    下がる sagaru = hang down(vi), come down

    下げる sageru = hang(vt), lower, move back

    下町 shitamachi = downtown (+town)

    下着 shitagi = underwear (+wear)

    靴下 kutsushita = socks (shoe+)

    下院 kain = Lower House (+House)

    下記 kaki = below-mentioned (+describe)

    下部 kabu = lower part (+part)

    下落 geraku = fall, degradation (+fall)

    下品 gehin = vulgar, unrefined (+quality)

    下半期 shitahanki = latter half year

    (+half+period)

    下旬 gejun = last ten days (+ tendays)

    *下手 heta = unskillful, poor at (+hand)

    下  o-, kuda-, sa-, shita, shimo (kun) ka, ge (on)= under, lower, down, inner, inferior, latter half


    Two sets of syllabary characters l.jpg

    Hiragana ひらがな

    Transformed originally from Kanji in the 9thcentury

    Used:

    to represent readings of Kanji

    to teach new Kanji

    to represent grammatical features (particles, auxiliary verbs and the inflections of words)

    Katakana カタカナ

    Correspondent to hiragana (46 moras)

    Used

    in foreign names

    in loan words

    in onomatopoemic words

    Two sets of syllabary characters


    Slide6 l.jpg

    [kan-ji]

    [te-ki-su-to]

    text

    [ko-no]

    this

    [hi-ra-ga-na]

    このテキストは漢字とひらがなと

    カタカナで書いてある。

    [to]

    and

    [wa]

    topic particle

    [de]

    by

    [ka-i-te a-ru]

    is written

    [ka-ta-ka-na]



    Naming kanji slower than hiragana feldman turvey 1980 l.jpg
    Naming Kanji slower than HiraganaFeldman & Turvey (1980)

    • Color words usually are written in Kanji

       frequency effect predicts that Kanji naming faster

    茶色

    灰色

    朱色

    栗色

    くろ

    みどり

    ちゃいろ

    はいいろ

    しゅいろ

    くりいろ

    kuro

    midori

    chairo

    haiiro

    shuiro

    kuriiro

    Kana was named faster

    Kanji -> lexicon -> phonology?


    Saito 1981 abstract l.jpg
    Saito (1981)- abstract -

    • Reading-out task:

      • Kana words were read out faster than Kanji words

  • Silent reading:

    • Kanji were judged faster than Kana.


  • Kanji words easier to identify than katakana words yamada mitarai yoshida 1991 l.jpg
    Kanji words easier to identify than Katakana words(Yamada, Mitarai & Yoshida, 1991)

    1s

    30ms

    response

    ****

    ****

    1-4 characters

    kanji/katakana

    word/non-word

    新聞配達

    エアコン

    エアコン

    ****

    ****

    Tachistoscopic study


    Slide11 l.jpg

    Whole word identification Constituent word identification


    Vocal inference only in kana kimura 1984 l.jpg
    Vocal inference only in Kana faster than katakana words of same lenghtKimura (1984)

    Synonymity judgement of pairs of words in

    • Kanji

    • Hiragana,

      with or without concurrent articulation (nro 1-5)

    ichi, ni, san, yon, go, ichi, ni, san, yon, go, ichi, ni, san, yon, go, ...

    • CRITICS (Leong & Tamaoka, 1995)

    • Unfamiliarity of seeing words in Hiragana

    • Homonyms in Hiragana (7 of 30 pairs)

      • esim. kyoukai =church, association or border

    結果 ー 実験

    けっか ー じっけん


    Semantics and phonological access yamada 1998 l.jpg
    Semantics and phonological access faster than katakana words of same lenghtYamada (1998)

    かわ -> kawa

    川 -> kawa

    かわ ->river

    川 -> river

    1) Naming

    faster than

    2) Translation

    faster than


    Reading kanji in lexical and semantic level semantics ortography and phonology morita tamaoka l.jpg
    Reading Kanji in lexical and semantic level: faster than katakana words of same lenghtsemantics, ortography and phonology(Morita & Tamaoka)

    1) Lexical decision task

    "To respond as quickly and as accurately as possible deciding if the item was correct japanese two-kanji compound word

    2) Proofreading:

    " to decide as accurately as possible if the words in the sentence were correct"

    in phonology: "if you find nonword in the sentence please press the button as soon as possible"

    • Semantic decision at the sentence level

      "To read by meaning and decide whether the words in the sentence were correct/misspelling (in phonology)"


    Ortography of kanji morita and tamaoka 2001 l.jpg
    Ortography of Kanji: faster than katakana words of same lenghtMorita and Tamaoka (2001)

    • 予約booking, reservation

    • 矛約 orthographically similar nonword

    • 吐約 orthographically dissimilar nonword


    Semantics of kanji morita and tamaoka 2001 l.jpg
    Semantics of Kanji: faster than katakana words of same lenghtMorita and Tamaoka (2001)

    • 残額[zan-gaku] = The money left over (real word)

    • 余額semantically similar nonword (余~残= left over)

    • 乱額semantically dissimilar nonword (乱 = disorder)


    Phonology of kanji morita and tamaoka 2002 l.jpg
    Phonology of Kanji: faster than katakana words of same lenghtMorita and Tamaoka (2002)

    • 規則[kisoku] = rule regulation (real word)

    • 基則pseudo-homophone (nonword)

    • 想則[sou-soku] phonetically dissimilar (nonword)


    Reaction times comparison of 3 studies l.jpg
    Reaction times: faster than katakana words of same lenghtComparison of 3 studies

    Experiment 1: Lexical decision

    Experiment 2: Proofreading

    Experiment 3: Semantic decision


    Error rates comparison of 3 studies l.jpg
    Error rates (%) faster than katakana words of same lenghtComparison of 3 studies

    Experiment 1: Lexical decision

    Experiment 2: Proofreading

    Experiment 3: Semantic decision


    Not only semantics l.jpg
    Not only semantics faster than katakana words of same lenght

    • Leong & Tamaoka (1995)

      ” kanji are not always accessed directly through the visual or lexical route

      • difficult/rare kanji may be processed via phonetic recoding

      • chlidren and less skilled readers

        • more influence of concurrent articulation


    Another story l.jpg
    Another story faster than katakana words of same lenght

    • Parallel processing of semantics and phonology

    • For example:

      Phonologically mediated access to meaning for Kanji: Is a rows still a rose in Japanese Kanji?  

      (Wydell, Patterson and Humphreys, 1993)


    Parafoveal view l.jpg
    Parafoveal view faster than katakana words of same lenght

    What can be extracted from paravovea in natural reading?

    • Word length information (Rayner, Fischer, & Pollatsek, 1998)

    • Orthographic features (Beauvillain & Doré, 1998)

    • Frequency (Kennedy, 1998; 2000; Hyönä & Bertram, 2004)

    • Phonology

    • Semantics

    Text features Readers skills

    Script type


    Semantics and parafoveal view in japanese l.jpg
    Semantics and parafoveal view in Japanese faster than katakana words of same lenght

    • The role of semantics in reading Kanji

      • Meaning entities

    • High information density

      • Semantic influence from parafoveal kanji?


    Experimental setting l.jpg
    Experimental setting faster than katakana words of same lenght


    Boundary technique l.jpg
    Boundary technique faster than katakana words of same lenght

    赤になった。 red

    1) そしてその花は赤になった。red

    2) そしてその花は血になった。blood

    3) そしてその花は歩になった。walk

    4) そしてその花は気になった。spirit

    Then that flower became red.

    赤になった。 red

    赤になった。 red

    赤になった。 red


    Important features l.jpg
    Important features faster than katakana words of same lenght

    • Natural reading condition

    • Frequency (word/character?)

    • Complexity

    • Number of strokes

    • Number of constituents

    • Familiarity and frequency

    • Age of Acquisition

    • Imageability

    • Reader skills


    References l.jpg
    References faster than katakana words of same lenght

    • Feldman, L.B. & Turvey, M.T. (1980). Words written in kana are named faster than the same words written in kanji. Language and Speed 23, 141-147 (abstract only)

    • Flores d'Arcais, G. B. & Saito, H. (1993). Lexical decomposition of complex Kanji characters in Japanese readers. Psychological Research, 55, 52-63.

    • Flores d'Arcais, G. B., Saito, H., & Kawakami, M. (1995). Phonological and semantic activation in reading kanji characters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21, 34-42.

    • Kess, J. F. & Miyamoto, T. (1997). Accessing the japanese mental dictionary through the japanese writing system. ???

    • Kimura, Y. (1984). Concurrent vocal interference: Its effect on kana and kanji, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36 A, 117-131.

    • Leong, C. K. & Tamaoka, K. (1995). Use of phonological information in processingkanji and katakana by skilled and less skilled Japanese readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 377-393.

    • Saito, H. (1981). Japanese Journal of Psychology, 52, 266-273, in japanese (abstract only).

    • Yamada (1998). The time course of semantic and phonological access in naming kanji and kana words. Reading and Writing: an Interdisciplinary journal, 10, 425-437.

    • Yamada, J. Japanese kanji as a semantically based orthography. Psychological reports, 84, 637-642)


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