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Part II: Lessons from Pluto on the Origin of the Solar System PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Comets, Kuiper Belt and Solar System Dynamics Part II: Lessons from Pluto on the Origin of the Solar System Silvia Protopapa & Elias Roussos Lectures on “Origins of Solar Systems” February 13-15, 2006 Pluto and Charon Radius Mass Surface composition Atmospheric composition Albedo

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Part II: Lessons from Pluto on the Origin of the Solar System

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Comets, Kuiper Belt and

Solar System Dynamics

Part II: Lessons from Pluto on

the Origin of the Solar System

Silvia Protopapa & Elias Roussos

Lectures on “Origins of Solar Systems”

February 13-15, 2006


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Pluto and Charon

Radius

Mass

Surface composition

Atmospheric composition

Albedo


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Pluto’s heliocentric motion

“The origin of Pluto’s unusual orbit-the most eccentric and inclined of all the planets-remains a mystery.”

“The orbits of Pluto and Neptune overlap, but close approaches of these two planets are prevented by the existence of a resonance condition: Pluto’s orbital period is exactly 3/2 that of Neptune.”

[Malhotra, 1993]


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Trans –Neptunian Populations

Plutinos

× scattered disk bodies

● classical bodies

Outer Solar system:

Current Situation

resonant bodies

hot classical KBOs

Kuiper belt

Scattered disk

Kuiper Belt:

Classical KBOs

resonant population

classical belt

Plutinos

cold classical KBOs

Escaped from Kuiper Belt:

ShorP. Comets

dynamically cold population

hot

population

Centaurus

Scatterd

[Morbidelli and Brown, 2003]


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Long-term stability of orbits in the Kuiper Belt

i=1◦

[Duncan, Levison, Budd, 1995]


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Long-term stability of orbits in the Kuiper Belt

0

[Duncan, Levison, Budd, 1995]


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Origin of the resonant populations

3:4

2:3

3:5

1:2

● surviving particles

removed particles

.

Final distribution of the Kuiper belt bodies according to the sweeping resonances scenario. [Malhotra,1993]

  • Explains:

  • existence of MMRs with Neptune

  • large eccentricities of MMRs with Neptune


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Origin of the hot populations

Gomes scenario

Red dots represent the local population, originally in the 40-50 AU zone

Green dots represent the population coming from Neptune’s region

  • Explains:

  • Bimodal inclination distribution of the classical KBOs

  • Colour distribution


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Binary systems in the Kuiper Belt

Formation of Binaries:

CFHT

1. Two large bodies penetrate one another’s Hill sphere. The loss of energy needed to stabilize the binary orbit can then occur either through dynamical friction from surrounding small bodies, or through the gravitational scattering of a third large body. [Goldreich, 2002]

  • A dozen binary KBOs are known

  • Bound orbits within several 1000km distance (0.1-2” separation)

  • Components with similar brightnesses, widely separeted and comparably sized

  • Components orbit one other with eccentricities of order unity

2. Collision of two planetesimals within the sphere of influence of a third body during low-velocity accretion in the solar nebula. [Weidenschilling, 2002]

HST

3. Exchange reaction in which a binary whose primary component is much more massive than the secondary interacts with a third body, whose mass is comparable to that of the primary. The low-mass secondary component is ejected and replaced by the third body in a wide but eccentric orbit.[Funato, 2004]


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What we can learn

from Pluto’s size?


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Accretion in the early outer solar system

OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS:

RESULTS:

  • ONE BODY WITH RADIUS OF ~1000Km (PLUTO)

  • ~105 KBOs WITH RADII >50Km BETWEEN 30-50AU

  • TIMESCALES COMPARABLE TO THE FORMATION TIMESCALE FOR NEPTUNE <108 yr

MORE PLUTOS

KBOs

[Kenyon and Luu, 1999]


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Lessons from Pluto

Orbit unusual

More of this kind? Yes, KBOs

Pluto & KBOs

Origin of these objects

Multiplity of Pluto

12 TNB

Formation mechanisms

Pluto’s size

needed for formation of Puto

More Plutos


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Thank you!


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Mean motion resonance collision protection mechanism

2:3 MMR

Neptune corotating frame


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Hill sphere

  • If the mass of the smaller body is m, and it orbits a heavier body of mass M at a distancea, the radius r of the Hill sphere of the smaller body is

  • For example, the Earth (5.97×1024 kg) orbits the Sun (1.99×1030 kg) at a distance of 149.6 Gm. The Hill sphere for Earth thus extends out to about 1.5 Gm (0.01 AU). The Moon's orbit, at a distance of 0.370 Gm from Earth, is comfortably within the gravitational sphere of influence of Earth and is therefore not at risk of being pulled into an independent orbit around the Sun.


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