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Part I: Consultation and Consultants, Collaboration and Collaborators. Chapter I:. The Foundations of Consultation and Collaboration. T he Promise of Consultation and Collaboration. A cornerstone activity for members of the helping professions

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Part I: Consultation and Consultants, Collaboration and Collaborators

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Part i consultation and consultants collaboration and collaborators

Part I:Consultation and Consultants,Collaboration and Collaborators

Chapter i

Chapter I:

The Foundations of Consultation and Collaboration

T he promise of consultation and collaboration

The Promise of Consultation and Collaboration

  • A cornerstone activity for members of the helping professions

  • Attempt to alleviate current problems while preventing the their future occurrence

  • Attempts to promote the psychological well being of society though indirect methods

  • Often viewed as an alternative to direct methods such as one-on-one and group counseling/psychotherapy

Consultation defined

Consultation Defined

  • A process in which a human services professional assists a consultee with a work-related (or caretaking-related) problem with a client system, with the goal of helping both the consultee and the client system in some specific way

Consultation defined cont d

Consultation Defined cont’d

  • Consultation deals exclusively with consultee’s work-related or caregiving-related problems

  • Consultant and consultee work together in solving the problems defined by consultation

Part i consultation and consultants collaboration and collaborators

Characteristics of Consultation

  • Voluntary for all parties

  • Relationship of peers

  • Collaborative

  • Temporary

  • Remedial or developmental

  • Role of human service professional

  • Problem-solving process

  • Triadic in nature

  • Helping relationship

  • Internal or external

Consultative relationship

Consultative Relationship

  • Relationship between the consultee and consultant is one of peers, of two equals

    • Though the two roles are equal in terms of power, it is the consultee who has the greatest need within the consultative relationship

Consultation and consultants

Consultation and Consultants

  • Who are consultants?

  • Who are consultees?

  • Who is the client system?

Consultants and consultees

Consultants and Consultees

  • Priority can be given to either consultee or client system depending on the approach used by the consultant

  • Consultant provides indirect service to the client system by providing direct service to the consultee

Rights of consultation participants

Rights of Consultation Participants

  • Participation in consultation is voluntary for all parties involved

  • Consultees free to do whatever they wish with consultant’s suggestions and recommendations

Length of consultation

Length of Consultation

  • Though consultation relationship is temporary, the length of consultation may range from a single session to weekly sessions for more than a year

Triad of consultation

Triad of Consultation



Client System

Figure 1.2 The triadic relationship in consultation

Collaboration defined

Collaboration Defined

  • Collaboration is very similar to consultation in that it follows the same problem-solving process

  • Collaboration involves the interactive exchange of resources, interdependence, and a focus on decision making

Collaboration cont d

Collaboration cont’d

  • Collaboration is a service in which the helper accepts responsibility for the mental health aspects of a case.

Part i consultation and consultants collaboration and collaborators

The Relationships of the Parties in Collaboration


# 1


# 2

Client System

Figure 1.3 The Relationships of the Parties in Collaboration

A distinguishing difference between consultation and collaboration

A Distinguishing Difference Between Consultation and Collaboration

  • In consultation, the consultee retains responsibility for the outcome, is considered to be the determiner of the suitability of possible interventions, and is responsible for adequate implementation of the intervention (i.e., ensuring treatment integrity)

    • (Zins & Erchul, 1995)

Multicultural limitations of consultation and collaboration

Multicultural Limitations of Consultation and Collaboration

  • Developed from Eurocentric models

  • Limitations make person-in-environment perspective important

  • Cultural competence in service delivery essential

  • Some multicultural models available (e. g., Ingraham)

Multicultural consultation

Multicultural Consultation

  • Consultant, in a culturally sensitive manner, adjusts services to accommodate and value cultural differences

  • Through employing multicultural framework, consultants are in better position to provide services with multicultural competence

Multicultural framework

Multicultural Framework

  • consultant knowledge, skills and dispositions related to cultural competence in consultation

  • understanding consultee needs for development in knowledge, skill, confidence and objectivity

  • cultural variations in the parties involved in consultation (e. g., consultant-consultee similarity)

  • contextual influence (e. g., organizational culture) and power influences (difference in power among parties in the consultation relationship)

  • methods for supporting consultee success in multicultural situations

Levels of prevention

Levels of Prevention

  • Preventive vs. remedial perspectives

  • Primary prevention

  • Secondary prevention

  • Tertiary prevention

  • Universal

  • Selected

  • Indicated

Historical overview

Historical Overview

  • Prototypic roles: healer and technological adviser

  • Started in modern times as a clinical expert role

  • Currently, focus is on facilitation of consultee’s professional development in current and future situations

Compared to other human service activities

Compared to Other Human Service Activities

  • Counseling and psychotherapy

  • Supervision

  • Mediation

Chapter ii

Chapter II:

Consultants, Consultees,

and Collaborators

Skill areas for consultants and collaborators

Skill Areas for Consultants and Collaborators

  • Interpersonal skills

  • Communication skills

  • Problem-solving skills

  • Skills in working with organizations

Skill areas for consultants and collaborators cont d

Skill Areas for Consultants and Collaborators cont’d

  • Skills in dealing with cultural diversity

  • Group skills

  • Ethical and professional behavior skills

Roles of the consultant

Roles of the Consultant

The consultant can take on a variety of roles depending on several factors:

  • Nature of the problem

  • Purpose and desired outcomes of consultation

  • Skills of the consultant

  • Skills of the consultee

Common consultation and collaboration roles

Common Consultation and Collaboration Roles







Fact Finder

Process Specialist



Emergence of advocacy

Emergence of Advocacy

  • The use of advocacy has received increasing attention

  • There has also been an increase in the use of the advocacy role in consultation

Roles cont d

Roles cont’d

  • Expert role is NOT opposite of collaborative role

  • The collaborative role in consultation is not the same as the service of collaboration

  • It is useful to think of the collaborative role being implemented on a continuum from nondirective to directive

Internal external consultants

Internal/External Consultants

  • Consultant can either be separate from (external) or part of (internal) system in which consultation is to occur

  • There are both advantages and disadvantages to being internal or external

Orientation to models of consultation

Orientation to Models of Consultation

  • Mental health

  • Behavioral

  • Organizational

Consultee as a variable

Consultee as a Variable

  • Consultee variables include:

    • knowledge

    • skills

    • attitudes

    • personal characteristics

Part i consultation and consultants collaboration and collaborators

Consultation research suggests that consultation has efficacy even though consultation practice has outpaced its body of research.

Research in Consultation and Collaboration

Research cont d

Research cont’d

  • The research on collaboration is very limited

  • Increase in the use of qualitative and mixed methods

  • Behavioral research most heavily researched

  • School-based also heavily researched

Chapter iii

Chapter III:

The Generic Model of Consultation and Collaboration

Stage i entry

Stage I: Entry

  • Phase One: Exploring organizational needs

  • Phase Two: Contracting

  • Phase Three: Physically entering the system

  • Phase Four: Psychologically entering the system

Stage ii diagnosis

Stage II: Diagnosis

  • Phase One: Gathering information

  • Phase Two: Defining the problem

  • Phase Three: Setting goals

  • Phase Four: Generating possible interventions

Stage iii implementation

Stage III: Implementation

  • Phase One: Choosing an intervention

  • Phase Two: Formulating a plan

  • Phase Three: Implementing the plan

  • Phase Four: Evaluating the plan

Stage iv disengagement

Stage IV: Disengagement

  • Phase One: Evaluating the process of consultation

  • Phase Two: Planning post-consultation matters

  • Phase Three: Reducing involvement and following-up

  • Phase Four: Terminating

Putting the generic model into practice

Putting the Generic Model into Practice

  • Equal attention should be paid to what you are doing and to how you are doing those things

  • Very important to get supervised practice in consultation

  • Implement in a collaborative manner whenever possible

Multicultural competence using the generic model

Multicultural Competence Using the Generic Model

  • It is key to effective implementation that the generic model be adapted with cultural competence in order to be relevant to the needs of consultees and their clients systems

  • Designed to take consultees where they are and can be adapted to their style of problem management and cultural context

Consultee readiness for change

Consultee Readiness for Change

  • Stages can assist consultants to assess consultee’s stage of change and increase likelihood of a successful consultation experience

  • Success of generic model is tied to consultee readiness for change

Resistance to consultation

Resistance to Consultation

  • Resistance: The failure of a consultee or organization to participate constructively in the consultation process

  • Reluctance: The hesitancy of the consultee to engage in consultation

Types of resistance

Types of Resistance

  • Systems-level

    • When unhealthy is due to lack of insight regarding the need to change

  • Consultee

    • There are a variety of sources of resistance (e. g., a consultee’s misconception concerning the nature of consultation)

Dealing effectively with resistance

Dealing Effectively with Resistance

  • There are several things consultants can do to minimize resistance:

    • Create strong relationship to build trust and alleviate fear

    • Demonstrate cultural competence and sensitivity

    • Collaborate whenever possible

    • Create conditions so that a consultation has a satisfying outcome and is worth the effort

Personalizing the generic model

Personalizing the Generic Model

  • As consultant or collaborator, you are your best intervention

    • Who you are as a person can affect the outcome of consultation or collaboration as much as what you do when you engage in these services

Chapter iv

Chapter IV:

Entry Stage

Stage i entry1

Stage I: Entry

  • Phase One: Exploring organizational needs

  • Phase Two: Contracting

  • Phase Three: Physically entering the system

  • Phase Four: Psychologically entering the system

Phase one exploring organizational needs

Phase One: Exploring Organizational Needs

  • To consult or not to consult:

    • Why am I here?

    • Who are you?

    • What is likely to happen?

    • What will be the result?

    • What can go wrong?

Phase two contracting

Phase Two: Contracting

Reason for contracting:

  • To clearly define expectations of both consultant and consultee

Elements of a contract:

  • Goals

  • Time frame

  • Responsibility of consultant and agency

  • Boundaries

  • Review and evaluation

Phase three physically entering the system

Phase Three: Physically Entering the System

  • Moving into “work space”

  • Getting to know employees of organization

  • Adapt to organization’s schedule

  • Have those affected by consultation informed about the consultant’s role

Phase four psychologically entering the system

Phase Four: Psychologically Entering the System

  • The gradual acceptance of consultant by members of the organization in which consultation is being performed

  • Consider the process level (how organization functions) and personal interaction (how people within an organization function)

During phase four a consultant should

During Phase Four a Consultant Should. . .

Create trustworthiness by:

  • Demonstrating understanding

  • Using power appropriately

  • Respecting confidentiality

  • Exhibiting credibility

Interpersonal influence in consultation

Interpersonal Influence in Consultation

  • Consultation can be seen as process of socially influencing consultees

    • “Trick” is for consultants to impact consultee in terms of gaining cooperation while maintaining a relationship among equals

  • Consultants need to use some social influence strategies but avoid more ethically-questionable coercive types

Multicultural implications entry stage

Multicultural Implications:Entry Stage

  • Be aware of other’s value systems

  • Use effective communication and interpersonal skill

  • Determine comfort level in dealing with any cultural or ethnic issues related to problem

  • Be aware of how cultural differences may impact outcome of consultation

Application of multicultural implications for entry

Application of Multicultural Implications for Entry

  • Certain minority cultural groups may be concerned about interpersonal orientation of consultant who is from a majority culture

    • Consultee from a majority culture may be more interested in the assistance-value of a consultant

Chapter v

Chapter V:

Diagnosis Stage

Stage ii diagnosis1

Stage II: Diagnosis

  • Phase One: Gathering information

  • Phase Two: Defining the problem

  • Phase Three: Setting goals

  • Phase Four: Generating possible interventions

Phase one gathering information

Phase One: Gathering Information

  • Deciding to proceed

  • Selecting dimension

  • Deciding who will be involved in data collection

  • Selecting the data collection methods

Types of data

Types of Data

  • Genetic data

  • Current descriptive data

  • Process data

  • Interpretive data

  • Consultee-client system relationship data

  • Client system behavior data

Means of collecting data

Means of Collecting Data

  • Interviews

  • Surveys

  • Questionnaires

  • Observation

  • Documents/Records

Phase two defining the problem

Phase Two: Defining the Problem

  • How many factors affect the problem?

  • How has the problem developed over time?

  • What past events are causing the current problem?

  • How are future expectations related?

Phase three setting goals

Phase Three: Setting Goals

  • The process of shaping a movement toward concreteness and specificity from a broader, more general perspective

Goal setting steps

Goal Setting Steps

  • Specify objective

  • How will objective be measured?

  • Specify target

  • Specify time span

  • Prioritize goals

  • Rate goals

  • Determine coordination requirements

Phase four generating possible interventions

Phase Four: Generating Possible Interventions

  • Intervention: A force that attempts to modify some outcome

    • Actions or activities that, when put together in a systematic manner, make up a plan to achieve a goal

Multicultural implications diagnosis stage

Multicultural Implications:Diagnosis Stage

  • Be aware of differences in gathering data

  • Be aware of perceptions of what needs to be accomplished held by consultee

  • Cultural differences can play a role in interventions proposed

Application of multicultural implications for diagnosis

Application of MulticulturalImplications for Diagnosis

  • Consultee from a high context culture may prefer interviewing and observation

    • Those from a low context culture may prefer surveys or document research

  • Some cultural groups may see the focus of diagnosis as being the group, and some may see focus as being the individual

Chapter vi

Chapter VI:

Implementation Stage

Stage iii implementation1

Stage III: Implementation

  • Phase One: Choosing an intervention

  • Phase Two: Formulating a plan

  • Phase Three: Implementing the plan

  • Phase Four: Evaluating the plan

Phase one choosing an intervention

Phase One: Choosing an Intervention

  • Select one or two interventions that have high probability of being successful

  • Take advantage of decision consultation

Increasing focus on evidenced based interventions

Increasing Focus on Evidenced-Based Interventions

  • Evidenced-based interventions are validated by research and/or data-based decision making

Types of interventions

Types of Interventions

  • Individual interventions

  • Dyadic and triadic interventions

  • Interventions for use between groups

  • Interventions for the entire organization

Phase two formulating the plan

Phase Two: Formulating the Plan

  • Plan: A detailed step-by-step method, formulated before hand, for doing something

  • Considerations:

    • What (objective)

    • Where (locale of implementation)

    • When (time frame)

    • How (methods, procedures, sequence)

    • Who (who is responsible for what)

Phase three implementing the plan

Phase Three: Implementing the Plan

  • Help consultee be flexible

  • Reassure and prepare consultee

  • Offer technical assistance during this time

  • Exercise caution toward dependency

Treatment integrity

Treatment Integrity

  • Treatment integrity has typically been presumed but not assessed

  • Important in drawing conclusions about intervention’s success

  • Sometimes referred to as treatment fidelity

  • In its simplest form refers to the degree to which the intervention is implemented as intended

Treatment integrity cont d

Treatment Integrity cont’d

  • Treatment integrity has two dimensions

    • First dimension focuses on how effectively the consultee carries out the intervention

      • The traditional focus on treatment integrity in consultation

    • Second dimension is consultation procedural integrity (CPI)

      • Refers to how well the consultant carries out consultation process in which the intervention is embedded

Treatment integrity cont d1

Treatment Integrity cont’d

  • Recently, methods for assessing treatment integrity have received attention

  • Interviews, observation and monitoring of implementation, training in the intervention, and use of scripted intervention plans can assess treatment integrity

Phase four evaluating the plan

Phase Four: Evaluating the Plan

  • Evaluation: The collection of data/information about implementation to determine effectiveness in meeting specified goal

    • Implementation evaluation

    • Outcome evaluation

Techniques used in outcome evaluation

Techniques Used in Outcome Evaluation

  • Individualized goal attainment measures

  • Standardized outcome assessment devices

  • Consumer satisfaction survey

Multicultural implications implementation stage

Multicultural Implications:Implementation Stage

  • Cultural differences can impact perception of the type of intervention selected

    • These differences should be taken into account when selecting and implementing an intervention

  • The question of responsibility during implementation may be based on cultural differences

  • During evaluation, it is important to have multicultural input

Application for multicultural implications during implementation

Application for MulticulturalImplications during Implementation

  • Some cultural groups choose to focus on using groups rather than focusing on time factors

  • Some cultural groups may see efficiency of the plan as most beneficial during evaluation

    • Other groups may evaluate social impact of plan

Chapter vii

Chapter VII:

Disengagement Stage

Stage iv disengagement1

Stage IV: Disengagement

  • Phase One: Evaluating the process of consultation

  • Phase Two: Planning post-consultation matters

  • Phase Three: Reducing involvement and following-up

  • Phase Four: Terminating

Phase one evaluating process

Phase One: Evaluating Process

  • Determine process and effects of consultation

  • Assess accountability and improvements in service

  • Add knowledge to the field of consultation

Types of evaluation

Types of Evaluation

  • Summative

    • the evaluation of outcomes or products

  • Formative

    • evaluation of the process of consultation

    • perform evaluations at the end of each phase of consultation

Summative evaluation

Summative Evaluation

  • Summative evaluation refers to the evaluation of outcomes or products

    • Often referred to as product evaluation

  • Assesses how well consultation worked

Types of summative evaluation

Types of Summative Evaluation

  • Pre-post method

  • Group comparison method

  • Single case method

The use of qualitative methods in consultation

The Use of Qualitative Methods in Consultation

  • Quantitative approach can get at cause and effect

  • Qualitative approach can help explain why the cause and effect relationship exists, for whom it exists, and how to sustain any effects that were observed

Types of qualitative methods

Types of Qualitative Methods

  • Triangulation

  • Member checks

  • Recursive data collection

  • Case study method

  • Focus groups

  • Ethnographic interviews

Phase two planning post consultation matters

Phase Two: Planning Post-Consultation Matters

  • Review planning process:

    • Determine objectives

    • Establish procedures

    • Define steps

    • Assign responsibility

    • Test for feasibility, cost effectiveness and capabilities

Phase three reducing involvement and following up

Phase Three: Reducing Involvement and Following-up

  • Reducing Involvement: Gradual reduction in consultants contact with consultee and organization, which prevents abrupt termination

  • Follow-up: Process of periodically checking how well results of consultation are being maintained over time and how the organization is performing post-consultation efforts

Phase four terminating

Phase Four: Terminating

  • Terminating provides closure in a formal yet personal manner

    • Leave consultee satisfied in process and accomplishments

    • Tie up unresolved issues before leaving

    • Beware of the issues of dependence and depression

Multicultural implications disengagement stage

Multicultural Implications:Disengagement Stage

  • Be aware of the cultural social needs of consultee involving time factor involved with disengagement

  • Dependency during follow-up phase may be influenced by cultural factors

Application of multicultural implications for disengagement

Application of Multicultural Implications for Disengagement

  • Some consultees may require longer follow-up period before termination as a result of degree of dependency or importance of relationships

Pragmatic issues

Pragmatic Issues

  • Recent changes in society and organizations

  • The influence of organizational theory

    • Bureaucratic model

    • Systems theory

  • The ecological perspective

  • Organizational change

Part i consultation and consultants collaboration and collaborators

Pragmatic Issues cont’d

  • Dealing with organizational culture

  • Issues in assessment in organizations

  • Culturally sensitive organization

  • Time constraints

Basic societal change affecting new workers

Basic Societal Change Affecting New Workers

  • Diminishing percentage of young people entering workforce

  • New workers less skilled than previous generations

  • A significant proportion of new workers are from minority groups

  • Women make up at least 60% of new workers

Organizational changes affecting the workplace

Organizational Changes Affecting the Workplace

  • Increased complexity and diversification

  • Managers of agencies/organizations more familiar with organizational change concepts

  • Organizations/agencies more concerned with ethics

  • Greater competition among all types of organizations

Organizational theory defined

Organizational Theory Defined

  • The study of the structures and processes of organizations and the behavior of groups and individuals within them.

The bureaucratic model

The Bureaucratic Model

  • Designed by Max Weber as the ideal of organizational effectiveness

  • “Means to ends” in nature

  • Each unit under direct control of higher unit

  • Organizations meant to be efficient, effective, and equitable

Open systems organizational theory

Open Systems Organizational Theory

  • Two types of systems: closed and open

  • Closed systems:

    • Not affected by their environments

    • Have a finite amount of energy

      • When energy is used up, system runs down

  • Open systems:

    • Have permeable boundaries

    • Can obtain energy from and send energy back to the environment

  • Organizations can be viewed as open systems

Four components to systems theory

Four Components to Systems Theory

  • A framework (pattern of activities)

  • Goals

  • Methods and operations

  • People

Basic assumptions of systems theory

Basic Assumptions of Systems Theory

  • Organizations are open systems

    • Subject to internal and external influences

  • Considers organizations a totality

  • Interdependence among its parts

  • Assumes that an organization is more than a sum of its parts

  • Organizational behavior is seen as dynamic and cyclical

Nine characteristics of systems

Nine Characteristics of Systems

  • Importation of energy

  • The throughput

  • The output

  • Systems are cycles and events

  • Negative entropy

  • Information input, negative feedback, and the coding process

  • The steady state and dynamic homeostasis

  • Differentiation

  • Equifinality

Five subsystems within an organization

Five Subsystems within an Organization

  • The technological or production subsystem

  • The support subsystem

  • The maintenance subsystem

  • The adaptive subsystem

  • The managerial subsystem

The ecological perspective

The Ecological Perspective

  • Emphasizes behavior as function of interaction of characteristics of the environment and the characteristics of the individual

  • Behavior needs to be examined in its given context

    • Interventions therefore need to focus on realigning fit between environment and individual by changing one or both

Ecological perspective cont d

Ecological Perspective cont’d

  • Often contrasted with medical model, which examines problems as residing in the individual

  • Promotes environmental “wellness” factors that lead to individual self-esteem and competence as well as the effort to lower incidence of environmental stressors on individuals that may lead to negative outcomes

Approaches to organizational change

Approaches to Organizational Change

  • Empirical-rational approach

  • Normative-reeducative approach

  • Power-coercive approach

  • Top-down approach

  • Bottom-up approach

  • Shared approach

Cultural attributes of a successful organization

Cultural Attributes of a Successful Organization

  • Uniqueness in their philosophy

  • A focus by management on maintaining the philosophy

  • Deliberate attempts to integrate the philosophy throughout the organization

  • Involvement by all staff in communicating and reinforcing an organization-wide view of events and decisions

Culturally competent organization

Culturally Competent Organization

  • Views diversity as a value-added opportunity

  • Proactive in responding to the constant diversity-related, economic, political and social conditions

  • Effectively provides services cross-culturally

  • Goal for consultants is to help to develop and maintain an organization that is culturally competent in its functioning through a variety of interventions at different levels within the organization

Social justice

Social Justice

  • Goal for consultants is to help to develop and maintain an organization that is culturally competent in its functioning through a variety of interventions at different levels within the organization

  • Mental health professionals realize they must move beyond one-on-one helping and assist with ecological and systems interventions that promote positive human development and remove barriers such as equal opportunity for all organizational members

Time constraints

Time Constraints

  • Organization members increasingly asked to do more with less

    • Time a precious commodity in organizations

  • Methods to create time for effective consultation include:

    • Scheduling meetings in advance as much as possible

    • Doing as much data gathering as possible early on in the consultation process

    • Training prospective consultees in the problem-solving process prior to consultation

Part iii

Part III:

Models of Consultation and Collaboration

Chapter ix

Chapter IX:

Mental Health Consultation and Collaboration

Basic characteristics of mental health consultation

Basic Characteristics of Mental Health Consultation

  • Method used by professionals in respect to a lay client or program for clients

  • Problem is mental health related

  • Consultant had no professional responsibility for the outcome of the case

  • Consultee can accept or decline the suggestions of the consultant

  • The relationship between consultant and consultee is to coordinate

Basic characteristics of mental health consultation cont

Basic Characteristics of Mental Health Consultation (cont.)

  • The consultant is external

  • Consultation often takes place in short set of interviews

  • Consultants use problem/response method during consultation, not predetermined answers

  • Goals of consultation are to help consultee improve handling or understanding of the current work difficulty and to increase capacity to deal with future problems

Basic characteristics of mental health consultation cont1

Basic Characteristics of Mental Health Consultation (cont.)

  • Consultation continues indefinitely

  • Aim of consultation is to improve job performance

  • Consultation does not focus on personal problems or feelings of consultee

  • Consultation is a professional function of specialist

  • MHC is a method of communication between mental health specialist and other professionals

Psychodynamic approach

Psychodynamic Approach

  • Fosters concept that behavior is a product of unconscious motivation and that most personal issues result from early childhood experiences, resulting in conflicts that affect behavior and cause use problems

  • MHC has become eclectic since this original psychodynamic approach

Transfer effect

Transfer Effect

  • The concept that what is learned in one situation should be useable in similar, future situations

One downsmanship


  • A valuable relationship building technique that a consultant can use to ensure relationship remains on equal footing

Types of mental health consultation

Types of Mental Health Consultation

  • Client-centered case

  • Consultee-centered case

  • Program-centered administrative

  • Consultee-centered administrative

The client centered case process

The Client-Centered Case Process

  • Focus is client’s case giving the consultee difficulty

  • Consultant functions as expert

  • The consultee acts as link between client and consultant as well as professional collaborator

Application for client centered process

Application for Client-Centered Process

  • Create list of questions about both client and consultee’s situations and options

  • Answer questions by gathering information from consultee

  • Write report for consultee outlining observations and recommendations

Consultee centered case process

Consultee-Centered Case Process

  • Goal is improvement of consultee’s ability to work on particular case and cases in the future

  • Consultant plays roles of detective, expert, and educator

Application for consultee centered process

Application for Consultee-Centered Process

  • Determine what reason the consultee is having a problem:

    • Lack of knowledge

    • Lack of skill

    • Lack of self-confidence

    • Lack of professional objectivity

Lack of objectivity

Lack of Objectivity

  • Simple identification: Identifies with client

  • Transference: Transfers onto client feeling and attitudes from key relationships in past

  • Characterological distortions: Personality problem that interferes with effective delivery of human services

  • Theme interference: Special type of transference in which consultee experiences an unexplainable “block” in progressing on case

Process of program centered administrative consultation

Process of Program-Centered Administrative Consultation

  • Assessment of mental health aspects of some program or internal functioning of organization

  • Consultant should be knowledgeable and experienced in:

    • Organizational theory and practice

    • Program development

    • Fiscal policy

    • Administrative procedures

    • Personal management

  • Administrator acts as principle consultee

Program centered administrative process

Program-Centered Administrative Process


  • Scanning: General overview of organization and its functions

  • Gather and interpret additional data

  • Consultant makes interim recommendations

  • Formal report of recommendations for both short-term and long-term goals and methods of implementation

Consultee centered administrative consultation

Consultee-Centered Administrative Consultation


  • Consultant works with organization’s administrative-level personnel to help solve problems in personal management or implementation of organizational policy

  • Administrator has job of helping consultant decide whether additional forms of consultation are required, whether there are to be other consultees and how involved they are to be in the consultation process

Consultee centered administrative consultation1

Consultee-Centered Administrative Consultation


  • Beginnings follow same methods as other consultation processes

  • Determine who consultees will be

  • Study organization’s social system and identify problems and issues

Trends in mental health consultation

Trends in Mental Health Consultation

  • Move toward eclecticism

  • Emergence of mental health collaboration

    • Major implication of Caplan and Caplan’s recent ideas for practicing consultants seems to be necessity for members of helping professions to determine at outset of helping relationship whether consultation or collaboration is in order

Trends cont d

Trends cont’d

  • Consultee-centered consultation has evolved beyond Caplan’s original conceptualization

    • Factors such as constructivist theory impact it

  • Process employs a constructivist approach that emphasizes cognition and constructing conceptual change

    • How consultee and consultant understand and view the problem

Multicultural aspects

Multicultural Aspects

  • Client-centered allows for minimal disclosure on part of consultee

  • Consultee-case suitable for consultees wanting assistance from a knowledgeable authority figure

  • Increased breadth and flexibility allow for sensitivity to cultural variables

Chapter x

Chapter X:

Behavioral Consultation and Collaboration

Behavioral consultation defined

Behavioral Consultation Defined

  • Relationship whereby services consistent with behavioral orientation are provided either indirectly to a client or system or directly by training consultees to enhance skills with clients and/or systems

Characteristics of behavioral consultation

Characteristics of Behavioral Consultation

  • Use of indirect service delivery models

  • Reliance on behavioral technology principles

  • Diversity of intervention goals

  • Changes aimed at various targets in different settings

Key concepts in behavioral consultation

Key Concepts in Behavioral Consultation

  • Scientific View of behavior

  • Emphasis on current influences on behavior

  • Principles of behavior change

  • Focus on problem solving

The consultation process

The Consultation Process

  • Behavioral case consultation

  • Behavioral technology training

  • Behavioral systems consultation

Behavioral case consultation

Behavioral Case Consultation

  • Consultant provides direct, behavior-based service to consultee concerning management of client or group of clients assigned to consultee

  • Consultants use system problem-solving process to assist consultee with clients

Verbalization technology

Verbalization Technology

  • Control of consultant’s and consultee’s verbalizations by consultant for full benefit and effectiveness for consultation process to occur

  • Four aspects:

    • Message source

    • Message content

    • Message process

    • Message control

4 stages of problem identification for bcc

4 Stages of Problem Identification for BCC

  • Problem identification stage

  • Problem analysis

  • Plan (treatment) implementation stage

  • Problem (treatment) evaluation stage

Behavioral technology training

Behavioral Technology Training

  • Used when consultees seek to increase general usage of behavioral technology principles when working with clients

  • Often used in schools

The training

The Training

  • Consultant trains consultees in general behavior principles or specific behavioral technology skills

  • Can be formal or informal

  • Individual or group

  • Education/training model (chap. 11) is similar to this training

Behavioral systems consultation

Behavioral Systems Consultation

  • Behavioral technology principles applied to a social system

  • Consultant uses principles to analyze and change interactions among various sub-systems of larger social system or between two or more interactive systems

The consultant s function and roles

The Consultant’s Function and Roles

  • Expert in behavioral systems consultation, systems theory, and behavioral ecology

  • Guides consultee through systematic problem-solving process

  • Consultation relationship is collaborative

Implications for consultation

Implications for Consultation

  • Behavioral systems consultation assumes that all or part of a system is experiencing functional difficulty

  • Consultation consists of the following:

    • System definition

    • System assessment

    • System intervention

    • System evaluation

Conjoint behavioral consultation

Conjoint Behavioral Consultation

  • Uses parents and teachers as conjoint consultees

  • Designed to bridge gap between school and home and maximize spread of effects from one setting to another

  • Process parallels that of behavioral case consultation while taking into consideration ecological factors

Cbc cont d

CBC cont’d

  • Concepts of CBC are compatible with culturally-competent practice

  • Sheridan and Kratochwill (2008) recommend the following practices to maximize CBC’s effectiveness with diverse families:

    • Practice cultural sensitivity

    • Build trusting relationships

    • Address diversity issues directly

    • Enhance communication

    • Implement a family-centered approach

Collaboration from a behavioral perspective

Collaboration from a Behavioral Perspective

  • Use of behavioral collaboration can be increased by organizations making effective use of behavioral technology training

Multicultural aspects related to behavioral consultation

Multicultural Aspects Related to Behavioral Consultation

  • Appealing to cultural groups that do not freely express feelings

  • Valuable to cultural groups that want concrete and predictable outcomes

Chapter xi

Chapter XI:

Organizational Consultation and Collaboration

Organizational consultation defined

Organizational Consultation Defined

  • Process in which professional provides assistance of a technical, diagnostic/prescriptive, or facilitative nature to individual or group from organization to enhance organization’s ability to deal with change and maintain or enhance effectiveness in some designated way

Key concepts in organizational consultation

Key Concepts in Organizational Consultation

  • Organization as client

  • Process is as important as content

Edgar schein s model of consultation

Edgar Schein’s Model of Consultation

  • Purchase of expertise

    • Education/training consultation

    • Program consultation

  • The doctor/patient model

  • The process model

The purchase of expertise model

The Purchase of Expertise Model

  • Consultee knows what problem is, what needs to be done and who can help solve it

  • Consultant comes in as expert to simply solve problem

Education training consultation

Education/Training Consultation

  • Most frequently used purchase of expertise consultation

  • Consultant provides education/training services in any number of areas and settings

Critical skills for education training consultation

Critical Skills for Education/Training Consultation

  • Assessing training needs

  • Developing and stating measurable objectives

  • Understanding learning and change process

  • Designing learning experience

  • Planning and designing educational events

Critical skills for educational training consultation

Critical Skills for Educational/ Training Consultation

  • Using heuristic laboratory methods

  • Using multiple learning stimuli

  • Functioning as group teacher or trainer

  • Helping others learn how to learn

4 steps of educational training consultation

4 Steps of Educational/ Training Consultation

  • Needs assessment

  • Planning education/training activities

  • Performing education/training

  • Evaluation

Program consultation

Program Consultation

  • Form of purchase expertise consultation in which organization in some way uses consultant to help plan new program or revise or deal with factors that affect existing program

  • Goal is to provide an organization technical assistance so a given program can be successful

The doctor patient model

The Doctor/Patient Model

  • Consultee knows something is wrong, but does not know what is wrong

  • Consultant is given power to make diagnosis and prescribe solution

  • Goal is to define problem and recommend realistic interventions

Critical skills for the doctor patient model

Critical Skills for the Doctor/Patient Model

  • Diagnostic skills

  • Prescriptive skills

  • In-depth knowledge of organizational theory

  • Ability to “read” organizations

  • Data collection skills

  • Date interpretation skills

  • Human relations skills

The process model

The Process Model

  • Consultant’s expertise should include skills to involve consultee in defining the problem, to form team with consultee and to ensure that consultation process focuses on consultee’s needs

  • Consultant makes consultee more effective problem solver

Seven steps to process consultation

Seven Steps to Process Consultation

  • Making initial contact

  • Defining relationship

  • Selecting a setting and method of work

  • Gathering data/making diagnosis

  • Intervening

  • Reducing involvement

  • Terminating

Process consultation cont d

Process Consultation cont’d

  • Prevention is key goal

  • Process consultation considers how persons, settings and events become resources for positive developments within an organization

  • Consultant uses “humble and critical inquiry,” by which consultant makes no assumptions in order to get to the notions about what consultee really wants

Collaboration from an organizational perspective

Collaboration from an Organizational Perspective

  • Aim is same as organizational consultation

    • Enhanced functioning of the organization

  • Emergence of internal consultant role has created many opportunities for collaboration in organizations

Multicultural aspects related to organizational consultation

Multicultural Aspects Related to Organizational Consultation

  • Cultural groups that prefer structured, expert-based consultation will find purchase of expertise model attractive

  • Cultural groups preferring assistance in problem definition will find doctor/patient model attractive

  • Cultural groups for which relationship is essential will prefer process model

Trends in organizational consultation

Trends in Organizational Consultation

  • Major trends are linked to several societal factors:

    • Impact of living and working in an information society

    • Ever-increasing pace of change in all aspects of life

    • Growing awareness that quality change requires systemic thinking

    • Realization that change can be successfully accomplished only through social influence

    • Increasing internationalization and diversity within organizations

Chapter xii

Chapter XII:

School Based Consultation and Collaboration

School based consultation and collaboration

School-Based Consultation and Collaboration

  • Consultation and collaboration are effective in providing psychological services in schools

  • As mental health and instructional needs of students have become of increasing concern, interest in consultation and collaboration has increased

School based consultation and collaboration cont d

School-Based Consultation and Collaboration cont’d

  • Increased importance due to:

    • Revisions to the Individuals with Disabilities Act

    • School violence

    • No Child Left Behind Act

    • Emphasis on school reform and restructuring

    • Increased school accountability and high stakes testing

  • School-based consultation can be focused on primary prevention, secondary prevention or tertiary prevention

School based consultation and collaboration cont d1

School-Based Consultation and Collaboration cont’d

  • Consultants have ability to significantly impact mental health and development of children by improving skills and knowledge of parents and those professionals who work with children at school

  • Manner in which consultation and collaboration take place in schools varies according to the model being employed

Consulting and collaborating with school administrators

Consulting and Collaborating with School Administrators

  • School’s leadership is powerful force in determining extent to which consultation and collaboration are considered acceptable services

  • Consultants will want to remember that administrator support and acceptance of programs is essential for change to occur

  • Administrators have priorities and pressures for which they may actively seek consultation

Organizational development consultation

Organizational Development Consultation

  • Series of planned and sustained efforts to apply principles of behavioral science to improve functioning of the school

    • Not an event of itself, but a process of changing the system

  • Way of making carefully planned, predictable change in school

  • Goal is to enhance school’s effectiveness by helping school personnel understand and effectively act on problems

Consulting and collaborating with teachers

Consulting and Collaborating with Teachers

  • School-based consultants assist teachers with both academically and behavioral challenged children as well as those with lesser concerns

  • School consultation and collaboration can be effective and efficient ways to help teachers enhance professional skills

  • Consultants work strategically to address both student presenting issues and consultee behavior and cognition

Teachers cont d

Teachers cont’d

  • Consultants have engaged in collaboration with teachers as method of providing service to students and families

  • Consultation has benefited teachers in variety of areas

    • Conducting effective parent conferences

    • Managing student behavior

    • Choosing instructional methodologies

    • Meeting unique needs of children of military children

Adlerian consultation consultation with teachers

Adlerian Consultation:Consultation with Teachers

  • Four basic assumptions:

    • Teachers cannot take responsibility for student behavior

    • Teachers should be more involved with encouragement than with praise

    • Teachers cannot always prevent failure on part of student

    • Teachers need to try to meet affective and cognitive needs of students

C group


Forces of the group:

  • Consultation

  • Collaboration

  • Clarification

  • Caring

  • Confrontation

  • Communication

  • Cohesion

  • Commitment

  • Change

  • Concern

  • Confidentiality

C group cont d

C-Group cont’d

  • Group consists of four to six teachers and consultant

  • Meets once a week

  • Six to eight sessions

  • Teacher presents problems with individual student and group discusses them

Instructional consultation

Instructional Consultation

  • Collaborative process in which problem is identified and interventions are selected and made

  • Instructional consultation (IC) is important model for helping teachers modify instructional behavior and more effectively create learning environment for students

  • Goal of IC is to increase student and staff performance regarding student academic and behavioral issues

Steps of instructional consultation

Steps of Instructional Consultation

  • Establishing collaborative relationship

  • Identifying problem

  • Observing classroom

  • Assessing curriculum-based learning

  • Planning instructional intervention

  • Terminating

Instructional consultation cont d

Instructional Consultation cont’d

  • Three ecological components make up instructional triangle and are assessed:

    • Current competencies and skill sets of student

    • Tasks expected to be accomplished by student

    • Teacher’s management and instructional behavior

Instructional consultation cont d1

Instructional Consultation cont’d

  • Most common roles of instructional consultant appear to be those of collaborator and educational trainer

    • May also include being advocate for particular instructional technique or service for student

  • Recent developments in this model include concept of instructional consultation teams and ecological perspectives

Consulting and collaborating with families

Consulting and Collaborating with Families

  • Schools are consciously attempting to assist children and increase parental/guardian involvement

  • Families influence student’s academic, social, and behavioral competencies

    • Consultation and collaboration with families are essential and has been on the rise

  • Research has shown that parent consultation can be effective in assisting with school-based behavioral and emotional problems of students

Parent case consultation

Parent Case Consultation

  • Parents may seek out consultation for a variety of reasons

    • Their child’s moving into or out of the school

    • Their child’s academic, emotional, or social behavior

  • Can be Adlerian, behavior, or mental health

  • Goal is to promote increased positive involvement by parents in school life of their child and improve family relationships

Home school collaboration

Home School Collaboration

  • Goal is to create effective partnerships between school-based professionals and parents to enhance student learning

  • In collaborating with parents, school-based professionals ensure parents are true partners, are viewed as experts on their children, and have some responsibility for the outcomes

Home school collaboration cont d

Home-School Collaboration cont’d

  • Parent involvement typically one-way flow of information from school to parent

    • Home-collaboration: a two-way communication effort based on joint efforts to assist the child

    • Sometimes referred to as home-school partnerships or school-family partnerships

  • From an ecological perspective, often helpful to think of school and parents together rather than only separately

Home school collaboration cont d1

Home-School Collaboration cont’d

  • Allows parent to exercise their roles, rights and responsibilities related to child’s welfare

  • School personnel can learn detailed information about child and family and engage parents in jointly defined goals

  • Reciprocal influences of home and school on student learning is maximized

Home school collaboration cont d2

Home-School Collaboration cont’d

Basic considerations in home-school collaboration include:

  • A preventive, problem-solving approach

  • Both educators and families are critical in socializing learners

  • Broad opportunities for parent participation are essential

  • Building relationships with parents can take time and effort

Cross cultural considerations

Cross-Cultural Considerations

When working with parents:

  • Culture directly influences family in significant manner

  • Consultants can ensure schools remove barriers for non-mainstream parents

  • Consultants will want to exercise caution in making any generalizations regarding characteristics of a given culture

Cross cultural considerations cont d

Cross-Cultural Considerations cont’d

  • Difference can impact the way consultant works with parents about the school-related issues child is facing

  • Diversity within culturally diverse groups (i.e., individual differences) needs to be taken into account

Cross cultural considerations cont d1

Cross-Cultural Considerations cont’d

  • Consultants will want to involve parents by taking on collaborative role to tap knowledge base and expertise on their children as method of consulting with cultural competence

Cross cultural considerations cont d2

Cross-Cultural Considerations cont’d

  • Holcomb-McCoy (2009) and Holcomb-McCoy & Bryan (2010)

    • Discuss emerging framework for parent consultation involving advocacy and empowerment that leads to a more supportive, culturally-responsive climate at school

    • Consultation in this form considers and deals with existing cultural differences and acknowledges interdependence of parents and their environmental contexts

Interagency collaboration

Interagency Collaboration


  • Problems of children effect all aspects of child’s life

  • Shared responsibility for case shifts focus from what the school can do to what the community should do to provide services

Interagency cont d

Interagency cont’d

  • Agencies collaborate to help children and their families, promote community mental health reform, or develop systems-level programs to promote student success and well-being

    • School, health services, social services, the child evaluation center, family services organizations, and often the family itself

  • Interagency collaboration and school-community partnerships can be effective in improving access to services for citizens as well as to meet their complex needs

Interagency cont d1

Interagency cont’d

  • Collaboration requires cultural competence

  • Shared responsibility necessitates solid agreement on roles and responsibilities of individual collaborators

  • Collaborating professionals will want to recognize that their team will have distinct “personality” that will impact how the team will function

Interagency cont d2

Interagency cont’d

Five elements of interdisciplinary collaboration:

  • Interdependence

  • Progress in collaboration involves building interventions with the contributions of each collaborator

  • Flexibility in collaborative process to accommodate power sharing and role adaptation

  • Collective ownership of goals

  • Discussion of progress and feedback to fellow collaborators

Multicultural school consultation

Multicultural School Consultation

  • Approach to consultation that takes into account how cultural issues affect consultation process and how related adaptations can be implemented at individual, group or system-wide levels

  • Ethnic and linguistic minority children constitute the most rapidly growing segment of the youth population in the U.S.

  • Consultants take into account individual differences and cultural issues

Multicultural school consultation cont d

Multicultural School Consultation cont’d

Ingraham (2000) points out several components of multicultural school consultation:

  • Domains for consultant learning and development (e.g., understanding cultural context for consultation)

  • Domains of consultee learning and development (e.g., avoiding overemphasis on culture)

  • Cultural variations in consultation constellation (e.g., taking into account cultural differences among consultant, consultee, and client system)

Multicultural school consultation cont d1

Multicultural School Consultation cont’d

  • Ingraham (continued):

    • Contextual and power influences (e.g., minimizing power differentials between consultant and consultee)

    • Hypothesized methods for supporting consultee and client success (e.g., using consultation methods matched with consultee’s style)

Multicultural cont d

Multicultural cont’d

  • Lopez and Truesdale’s six underlying principles that facilitate framing multicultural consultation:

    • Consultants are sensitive to cultural differences

    • Consultants and consultees acquire knowledge about their client’s cultural backgrounds

    • Consultants are mindful of cultural differences in communication

    • Cultural differences influence interpersonal relationships between consultants and consultees.

    • Multicultural issues are addressed throughout every stage of the consultation process

    • Consultants acknowledge how systemic issues impact the cultural context of consultation

Multicultural cont d1

Multicultural cont’d

  • Multicultural consultation has increasing empirical support for its effectiveness but more is needed

Practical matters

Practical Matters

  • Consultation/collaboration and special education

  • Response to intervention (RTI)

  • Systems view of the school

  • Developing a framework for prevention and intervention

  • Time constraints

Practical matters special education

Practical Matters: Special Education

  • Contributors to increased opportunities for consultation and collaboration in areas related to special education:

    • Federal legislation

    • Advances in the field of special education

    • National organizations related to school-based professionals

  • Dictates an awareness of special education literature including classifications as well as assessment methods and related ethical, professional and legal issues

Practical matters rti

Practical Matters:RTI

  • RTI is a systemic intervention and change

    • Consultants often needed in its implementation

Practical matters rti vs consultation

Practical Matters:RTI vs. Consultation

  • RTI and consultation are both problem-solving activities but not one in the same

    • Consultation focuses on teacher-consultee while RTI focuses on student client

    • Consultants can be internal or external to school whereas professionals implementing RTI are school-based

    • Consultation is less likely to be team-based like RTI

    • Consultation focuses on more areas and can be more general than RTI

    • Participation in consultation is voluntary while participation in RTI may not be

Practical matters systems view of schools

Practical Matters:Systems View of Schools

  • Individual interventions often not adequate in dealing with issues related to educational and psychological well-being of students

  • Systems view allows for capacity building within schools that includes development of supportive environments for all stakeholders

  • Allows for the use of ecological and preventive perspectives and their related interventions

  • Can reflect a postmodernism point-of-view

Practical matters systems view of schools1

Practical Matters:Systems View of Schools

  • Consultants take on broad framework for consultation because of complexity of organizational factors and how they can be changed

  • Consultants and consultees can intervene at several ecological levels including individual client level

  • Takes focus of a reactive approach for dealing with issues of individual students to broader approach that promotes prevention and well-being of all students

Practical matters systems view of schools2

Practical Matters:Systems View of Schools

  • System-level change demands that all aspects of education be examined in terms of multiple levels and be based multiple partnerships among stakeholders

    • All students receive services that match their needs

  • Idea is that consultant will use existing structures and processes within school to target, initiate and maintain system level changes including evaluating and sustaining change initiatives

Practical matters systems view of schools3

Practical Matters:Systems View of Schools

  • One concern is that not all teachers are comfortable with systems approaches

    • Some want more concrete ways of approaching perceived problems

  • Many school consultants have not been trained in systems methods

  • View typically dictates that consultants examine child in interaction with a variety of levels of the ecosystem such as home, school, and community

    • Complicates nature of consultation relationship

Practical matters developing framework for prevention and intervention

Practical Matters: Developing Framework for Prevention and Intervention

  • Prevention programs seeing resurgence in schools

    • Many have been designated as evidenced-based

  • Focus of prevention is to build capacities in systems (e.g., a school or other organization) so overall development of members of that system in things such as mental health, social skills, and health is optimized relative to the mission of the system

Practical matters developing a framework

Practical Matters: Developing a Framework

  • Interventions include:

    • Tier 1: Universal

      • Target the entire population

    • Tier 2: Selective

      • Target segment of the population at risk

    • Tier 3: Indicated

      • Target students who need individualized and intense intervention

  • Each of the three tiers provides great opportunities for consultation

Practical matters time constraints

Practical Matters:Time Constraints

  • Time constraints are large and real issue for conducting effective consultation and collaboration

  • Limitation of school consultation and collaboration is that both take time to do well

  • Effective time management on the part of school professionals is one obvious help in creating time for consultation and collaboration

Practical matters time constraints1

Practical Matters: Time Constraints

  • Consultants can have more positive impact on consultation process by using their limited time to observe and assess the problem, model and coach

  • Other strategies:

    • Early release/late arrival of students

    • Use of substitutes

    • Teaching strategies that free up personnel

    • Use of telephone and/or other technologies such as VoIP and e-mail for task accomplishment

    • Engaging in peer consultation

    • Use of group methods.

School consultation in the 21 st century

School Consultation in the 21st Century

Consultation and collaboration will:

  • Focus more on positively impacting all students

  • Develop culturally sensitive interventions

  • Engage in system-level initiatives

  • Use data-driven decision making

  • Use the ecological approach more often

School consultation in the 21 st century cont d

School Consultation in the 21st Century cont’d

  • Use of telephone, texting, the web and e-mail to accomplish tasks (such as follow-up) increasing

  • Use of consultation and collaboration teams will continue to increase

  • Role of consultants and collaborators in gifted education receiving increased attention

  • School-based consultants will help their schools create positive climate with regard to school reform movement’s continuing impact on public education

School consultation in the 21 st century cont d1

School Consultation in the 21st Century cont’d

  • Infusion of positive psychology to increase well-being of individuals in school through mental health and behavioral consultation also receiving more attention

  • Positive behavior support (PBS) movement will provide an approach that allows consultant to help develop support and interventions at individual, classroom or school-levels

  • Multiple issues brought about by high-stakes testing, such as teacher burnout, will be fertile areas for consultation

School consultation in the 21 st century cont d2

School Consultation in the 21st Century cont’d

  • School-based consultants may well be called upon to serve as “cultural mediators” between school and community

  • School-based consultants will be increasingly called upon to promote children’s health and collaborate with medical/health professionals to meet children’s health needs

  • School-based consultants are increasingly called on to act as organizational consultants during a disaster or a national or local crisis

Chapter xiii

Chapter XIII:

Case Study Illustrations

Case study illustrations

Case Study Illustrations

  • Purpose of this chapter is to assist in applying theory to practice and obtaining a more realistic picture of what transpires in consultation

  • ACME Human Services Center

  • Typescript of consultation and collaboration sessions

Chapter xiv

Chapter XIV:

Ethical and Legal Issues

Ethics defined

Ethics Defined

  • Standards of moral and professional conduct

  • Code of ethics: Written ethical guideline followed by professionals

    • Discourages inappropriate practice

    • Protects recipient of services

    • Promotes exemplary behavior

Making ethical judgments

Making Ethical Judgments

  • Identify problem

  • Identify potential issues

  • Review ethical guidelines

  • Consult colleagues

  • Consider courses of action

  • Consider consequences for various decisions

  • Determine best course of action



  • Beliefs and principles held by a person that have been formed by his or her life experiences

  • Consultant should know what his or her values are

  • Consultant should not expect others to hold the same values

  • Consultant should be aware of specific values held by cultural and ethnic groups



  • Providing services and accepting jobs for which one is qualified

    • Maintain high levels of professionalism

    • Know one’s professional limitations

    • Know when to decline and refer

    • Avoid situations in which personal concerns could affect professional performance

Multicultural issues

Multicultural Issues

  • Ethical practice dictates that consultants take cultural context of consultees and client systems into account

  • To practice ethically, consultants need to demonstrate sensitivity to and respect for cultural differences when they provide services whether to families, in schools, or in any other organization

Consultant consultee client relationship


  • Work-related focus

  • Dual relationships

  • Freedom of choice

Rights of consultees

Rights of Consultees

  • Confidentiality: Protecting the identities of parties involved in consultation

  • Informed consent: To inform consultees about the nature and goals of consultation, their right to privacy, the voluntary nature of participation and the complete freedom they have in following suggestions made by the consultant

The consultant and the group

The Consultant and the Group

  • Consulting with groups with caseloads

Intervention areas involving ethical issues

Intervention Areas Involving Ethical Issues

  • Individual vs. systems-level

  • Use of assessment data

  • Empirical validity of interventions

Issues in disaster crisis consultation

Issues in Disaster/Crisis Consultation

  • Consultants bear in mind acute vulnerability of client system in crisis and disaster situations

  • Resulting chaotic environment will heighten ethical considerations

  • Consultants assure that cultural competence is exhibited when engaging in crisis consultation in that responses to a crisis vary to a given culture

Ethical issues in organizational consultation

Ethical Issues in Organizational Consultation

  • Typical ethical issues exacerbated by complexity or organization

  • Aspirational ethics

  • Virtue ethics

Consulting over the internet

Consulting Over the Internet

  • Relationship development

  • Confidentiality

  • Location-specific factors

Collaboration and ethical issues

Collaboration and Ethical Issues

  • Not all collaborators may have freedom to participate in team effort

  • Confidentiality is assumed in consultation

    • In collaboration, pertinent material may have to be distributed among team members

  • In consultation, consultee can accept or refuse consultant’s recommendations

    • In collaboration, such freedom is not presumed due to each team member’s unique knowledge and skills to which other team members typically defer

Legal issues malpractice

Legal Issues: Malpractice

Behaviors often leading to legal entanglements:

  • Misrepresenting one’s training

  • Failing to respect integrity and privacy

  • Using improper diagnosis and assessment

  • Collecting fees improperly

  • Libel and slander

  • Breech of contract

  • Failing to keep adequate records

  • Failing to provide informed consent

  • Providing poor advice

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