Part I: Consultation and Consultants, Collaboration and Collaborators
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Part I: Consultation and Consultants, Collaboration and Collaborators

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Chapter I:. Introduction and Overview. Consultation Defined. Consultation is a process in which a human services professional assists a consultee with a work-related (or caretaking-related) problem with a client system, with the goal of helping both the consultee and the client system in some specific way. .
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Part I: Consultation and Consultants, Collaboration and Coll...

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1. Part I: Consultation and Consultants, Collaboration and Collaborators

2. Chapter I: Introduction and Overview

3. Consultation Defined Consultation is a process in which a human services professional assists a consultee with a work-related (or caretaking-related) problem with a client system, with the goal of helping both the consultee and the client system in some specific way.

4. Consultation Defined Consultation deals exclusively with the consultee?s work-related or care-giving related problems. The consultant and consultee work together in solving the problems defined by consultation.

5. . Role of human service professional Problem-solving process Triadic in nature Helping relationship Internal or external Voluntary for all parties Relationship of peers Collaborative Temporary Remedial or developmental Characteristics of Consultation

6. Consultative Relationship The relationship between the consultee and consultant is one of peers, of two equals. Though the two roles are equal in terms of power, it is the consultee who has the greatest need within the consultative relationship.

7. Consultation and Consultants Who are consultants? Who are consultees? Who is the client system?

8. Consultants and Consultees Priority can be given to either consultee or client system depending on the approach used by the consultant The consultant provides indirect service to the client system by providing direct service to the consultee

9. Rights of Consultation Participants Participation in consultation is voluntary for all parties involved Consultees are free to do whatever they wish with the consultant?s they wish with consultant?s suggestions and recommendations

10. Length of Consultation Though the consultation relationship is temporary, the length of consultation may range from a single session to weekly sessions for more than a year.

11. Triad of Consultation Consultee Client System Consultant Figure 1.2 The triadic relationship in consultation

12. Collaboration Defined Collaboration is very similar to consultation in that it follows the same problem-solving process Collaboration involves the interactive exchange of resources, interdependence, and a focus on decision making.

13. Collaboration cont?d Collaboration is a service in which the helper accepts responsibility for the mental health aspects of a case.

14. Client System Collaborator # 2 Collaborator # 1 The Relationships of the Parties in Collaboration Figure 1.3 The Relationships of the Parties in Collaboration

15. Mental Health Consultation and Mental Health Collaboration Contrasted on Key Dimensions

16. From: Caplan, G.R., Caplan, R.B., and Erchul, W.P. (1994). Caplan mental health consultation: Historical background and current status. Consulting Psychology Journal, 1994, p.7. By permission of publisher.

17. A Distinguishing Difference Between Consultation and Collaboration In consultation, the consultee retains responsibility for the outcome, is considered to be the determiner of the suitability of possible interventions, and is responsible for adequate implementation of the intervention (i.e., ensuring treatment integrity) (Zins & Erchul, 1995).

18. Chapter II: Consultants, Consultees, and Collaborators

19. Skill Areas for Consultants and Collaborators Interpersonal skills Communication skills Problem-solving skills Skills in working with organizations

20. Skill Areas for Consultants and Collaborators cont?d Group skills Skills in dealing with cultural diversity Ethical and professional behavior skills

21. Roles of the Consultant: The consultant can take on a variety of roles depending on several factors: Nature of the problem Purpose and desired outcomes of consultation Skills of the consultant Skills of the consultee

22. Common Consultation and Collaboration Roles Directive * Advocacy Expert Trainer/Educator Collaborator Fact Finder Process Specialist * Non-directive

23. Internal/External Consultants A consultant can either be separate from or part of the system in which consultation is to occur.

24. Research in Consultation and Collaboration Consultation research suggests that consultation has efficacy even though consultation practice has outpaced its body of research.

25. Research cont?d The research on collaboration is very limited

26. Part II: A Generic Model of Consultation and Collaboration Four Stage Process Four Phases per Stage

27. Chapter III: Entry Stage

28. Stage I: Entry Phase One: Exploring Organizational Needs Phase Two: Contracting Phase Three: Physically Entering the System Phase Four: Psychologically Entering the System

29. Phase One: Exploring Organizational Needs To Consult or Not to Consult Why am I here? Who are you? What is likely to happen? What will be the result? What can go wrong?

30. Phase Two: Contracting Reason for contracting: To clearly define expectations of both consultant and consultee Elements of a contract: goals time frame responsibility of consultant & agency boundaries review and evaluation

31. Phase Three: Physically Entering the System Moving into ?work space? Getting to know employees of organization Adapt to organization?s schedule Have those affected by consultation informed about the consultant?s role

32. Phase Four: Psychologically Entering the System The gradual acceptance of the consultant by members of the organization in which consultation is being performed Consider the process level (how organization functions) and personal interaction (how people within an organization function)

33. During Phase Four a Consultant Should. . . Create trustworthiness by. . . Demonstrating understanding Using power appropriately Respecting confidentiality Exhibiting credibility

34. Multicultural Implications: Entry Stage Be aware of other?s value systems Use effective communication and interpersonal skill Determine comfort level in dealing with any cultural or ethnic issues related to the problem Be aware of how cultural differences may impact the outcome of consultation

35. Application of Multicultural Implications for Entry Certain minority cultural groups may be concerned about the interpersonal orientation of a consultant who is from a majority culture; whereas, a consultee from a majority culture may be more interested in the assistance-value of a consultant

36. Chapter IV: Diagnosis Stage

37. Stage II: Diagnosis Phase One: Gathering Information Phase Two: Defining the Problem Phase Three: Setting Goals Phase Four: Generating Possible Interventions

38. Phase One: Gathering Information Deciding to proceed Selecting dimension Deciding who will be involved in data collection Selecting the data collection methods

39. Types of Data Genetic data Current descriptive data Process data Interpretive data Consultee-client system relationship data Client system behavior data

40. Means of Collecting Data Interviews Surveys Questionnaires Observation Documents/Records

41. Phase Two: Defining the Problem How many factors affect the problem? How has the problem developed over time? What past events are causing the current problem? How are future expectations related?

42. Phase Three: Setting Goals The process of shaping, a movement toward concreteness and specificity from a broader, more general perspective

43. Goal Setting Steps Specify objective How will objective be measured? Specify target Specify time span Prioritize goals Rate goals Determine coordination requirements

44. Phase Four: Generating Possible Interventions Intervention- a force that attempts to modify some outcome. In consultation, interventions are actions or activities that, when put together in a systematic manner, make up a plan to achieve a goal

45. Multicultural Implications: Diagnosis Stage Be aware of differences in gathering data Be aware of perceptions of what needs to be accomplished held by consultee Cultural differences can play a role in the interventions proposed

46. Application of Multicultural Implications for Diagnosis Consultee from a high context culture may prefer interviewing and observation; whereas, those from a low context culture may prefer surveys or document research Some cultural groups may see the focus of diagnosis as being the group, and some may see the focus as being the individual

47. Chapter V: Implementation Stage

48. Stage III: Implementation Phase One: Choosing an Intervention Phase Two: Formulating a Plan Phase Three: Implementing the Plan Phase Four: Evaluating the Plan

49. Phase One: Choosing an Intervention Select one or two interventions that have a high probability of being successful Take advantage of decision consultation

50. Types of Interventions Individual Interventions Dyadic and Triadic Interventions Interventions for use between groups Interventions for the entire organization

51. Phase Two: Formulating the Plan Plan- a detailed step-by-step method, formulated before hand, for doing something. Considerations- What (objective) Where (locale of implementation) When (time frame) How (methods, procedures, sequence) Who (who is responsible for what)

52. Phase Three: Implementing the Plan Help consultee be flexible Reassure and prepare consultee Offer technical assistance during this time Exercise caution toward dependency

53. Phase Four: Evaluating the Plan Evaluation- the collection of data/information about the implementation to determine its effectiveness in meeting the specified goal implementation evaluation outcome evaluation

54. Techniques used in outcome evaluation Individualized goal attainment measures Standardized outcome assessment devices Consumer satisfaction survey

55. Multicultural Implications: Implementation Stage Cultural differences can impact the perception of the type of intervention selected and these differences should be taken into account when selecting and implementing an intervention The question of responsibility during implementation may be based on cultural differences During evaluation it is important to have multicultural input

56. Application for Multicultural Implications during Implementation Some cultural groups choose to focus on using groups rather than focusing on time factors Some cultural groups may see the efficiency of the plan as most beneficial during evaluation; whereas, other groups may evaluate the social impact of the plan

57. Chapter VI: Disengagement Stage

58. Stage IV: Disengagement Phase One: Evaluating the Process of Consultation Phase Two: Planning Post-consultation Matters Phase Three: Reducing Involvement and Following-up Phase Four: Terminating

59. Phase One: Evaluating Process Determine process and effects of consultation Assess accountability and improvements in service Add knowledge to the field of consultation

60. Types of Evaluation Summative the evaluation of outcomes or products Formative evaluation of the process of consultation perform evaluations at the end of each phase of consultation

61. Phase Two: Planning Post-Consultation Matters Review planning process: determining objectives establish procedures defining steps assigning responsibility testing for feasibility, cost effectiveness and capabilities

62. Phase Three: Reducing Involvement and Following-up Reducing Involvement- gradual reduction in consultants contact with consultee and organization, which prevents abrupt termination Follow-up- the process of periodically checking how well the results of consultation are being maintained over time and how the organization is performing post-consultation efforts

63. Phase Four: Terminating Terminating provides closure in a formal and ritualistic manner leave consultee satisfied in process and accomplishments tie up unresolved issues before leaving beware of the issues of dependence and depression

64. Multicultural Implications: Disengagement Stage Be aware of the cultural social needs of consultee involving the time factor involved with disengagement Dependency during follow-up phase may be influenced by cultural factors

65. Application of Multicultural Implications for Disengagement Some consultees may require a longer follow-up period before termination as a result of degree of dependency or importance of relationships

66. Chapter VII: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

67. Ethics Defined Standards of moral and professional conduct Code of ethics--a written ethical guideline followed by professionals discourages inappropriate practice protects recipient of services promotes exemplary behavior

68. Making Ethical Judgements Identify problem Identify potential issues Review ethical guidelines Consult colleagues Consider courses of action Consider consequences for various decisions Determine best course of action

69. Values Those beliefs and principles held by a person which have been formed by his/her life experiences Consultant should know what his/her values are Consultant should not expect other to hold the same values Consultant should be aware of specific values held by cultural and ethnic groups

70. Competence Providing services and accepting jobs for which one is qualified maintain high levels of professionalism know one?s professional limitations know when to decline and refer avoid situations in which personal concerns could affect professional performance

71. Consultant-Consultee-Client Relationship Work-related focus Dual relationships Freedom of choice

72. Rights of Consultee Confidentiality--protecting the identities of parties involved in consultation Informed Consent--to inform consultees about the nature and goals of consultation, their right to privacy, the voluntary nature of participation and the complete freedom they have in following suggestions made by the consultant

73. The Consultant and the Group Consulting with groups with caseloads Consulting with training groups

74. Intervention Areas Involving Ethical Issues Individual vs. systems-level Use of assessment data Empirical validity of interventions

75. Ethical Issues in Organizational Consultation Typical ethical issues exacerbated by complexity or organization Aspirational ethics Virtue ethics

76. Consulting Over the Internet Relationship development Confidentiality Location-specific factors

77. Legal Issues: Malpractice Behaviors often leading to legal entanglements: Misrepresenting one?s training Failing to respect integrity and privacy Using improper diagnosis and assessment Collecting fees improperly Libel and slander Breech of contract Failing to keep adequate records Failing to provide informed consent Providing poor advice

78. Part III: Models of Consultation and Collaboration

79. Chapter VIII The Pragmatic Issues of Working within an Organization

80. Pragmatic Issues Recent changes in society and organizations The influence of organizational theory Organizational change

81. Pragmatic issues cont?d C. Dealing with organizational culture D. Issues in assessment in organizations E. Culturally sensitive organization F. Time constraints

82. Basic Societal Change Affecting New Workers Diminishing % of young people entering workforce New workers less skilled than previous generations Over 33% of new workers are from minority groups Women make up at least 60% of new workers

83. Organizational Changes Affecting the Workplace Increased complexity and diversification Managers of agencies/organizations more familiar with organizational change concepts Organizations/agencies more concerned with ethics Greater competition among all types of organizations

84. Organizational Theory defined *The study of the structures and processes of organizations and the behavior of groups and individuals within them (Pugh, 1967).

85. The Bureaucratic Model Designed by Max Weber as the ideal of organizational effectiveness. ?Means to ends? in nature Each unit under direct control of higher unit Organizations meant to be efficient, effective, and equitable.

86. Open Systems Organizational Theory Two types of systems: closed and open *Closed systems are not affected by their environments: they have a finite amount of energy, and when that energy is used up, the system runs down. *Open systems have permeable boundaries and can obtain energy from and send energy back to the environment. *Organizations can be viewed as open systems

87. Four components to the systems theory A framework (pattern of activities) Goals Methods and operations People

88. Basic assumptions of the systems theory Organizations are open systems; subject to internal and external influences Considers organizations a totality Interdependence among its parts Assumes that an organization is more than a sum of its parts Organizational behavior is seen an dynamic & cyclical

89. 9 Characteristics of Systems Importation of energy The throughput The output Systems are cycles and events Negative entropy Information input, negative feedback, and the coding process The steady state and dynamic homeostasis Differentiation Equifinality

90. 5 subsystems within an organization The technological or production subsystem The support subsystem The maintenance subsystem The adaptive subsystem The managerial subsystem

91. Approaches to organizational change Empirical-rational approach Normative-reeducative approach Power-coercive approach Top-down approach Bottom-up approach Shared approach

92. Cultural attributes of a successful organization Uniqueness in their philosophy A focus by management on maintaining the philosophy Deliberate attempts to integrate the philosophy throughout the organization Involvement by all staff in communicating and reinforcing an organization-wide view of events and decisions

93. Culturally Sensitive Organization Views diversity as a value added opportunity Is proactive in responding to the constant diversity-related, economic, political and social conditions Effectively provides services cross-culturally

94. Chapter IX: Mental Health Consultation and Collaboration

95. Basic Characteristics of Mental Health Consultation Method used by professionals in respect to a lay client or program for clients Problem is mental health related Consultant had no professional responsibility for the outcome of the case Consultee can accept or decline the suggestions of the consultant The relationship between consultant and consultee is to coordinate

96. Basic Characteristics of Mental Health Consultation (cont.) The consultant is external Consultation often takes place in a short set of interviews Consultants use a problem, response method during consultation, not predetermined answers The goals of consultation are to help consultee improve their handling or understanding of the current work difficulty and to increase the capacity to deal with future problems

97. Basic Characteristics of Mental Health Consultation (cont.) Consultation continues indefinitely The aim of consultation is to improve job performance Consultation does not focus on personal problems or feelings of the consultee Consultation is a professional function of a specialist M.H.C. is a method of communication between a mental health specialist and other professionals

98. Psychodynamic Approach Fosters the concept that our behavior is a product of unconscious motivation and that most of our personal issues result from early childhood experiences, resulting in conflicts that affect our behavior and cause use problems

99. Transfer Effect The concept that what is learned in one situation should be useable in similar, future situations

100. ?One-Downsmanship? A valuable relationship building technique that a consultant can use to ensure that the relationship remains on equal footing

101. Types of Mental Health Consultation Client-centered case Consultee-centered case Program-centered administrative Consultee-centered administrative

102. The Client-Centered Case Process The focus is a client?s case that is giving the consultee difficulty Consultant functions as expert The consultee acts as a link between client and consultant as well as a professional collaborator

103. Application for Client-Centered Process Create a list of questions about both the client?s and consultee?s situations and options Answer those questions by gathering information from the consultee Write a report for the consultee outlining observations and recommendations

104. Consultee-Centered Case Process The goal is improvement of consultee?s ability to work on a particular case and cases in the future Consultant plays the roles of detective, expert, and educator

105. Application for Consultee-Centered Process Determine what reason the consultee is having a problem: Lack of knowledge Lack of skill Lack of self-confidence Lack of professional objectivity

106. Lack of Objectivity Simple identification--identifies with the client Transference--Transfers onto the client feeling and attitudes from key relationships in the past Characterological distortions--Personality problem that interferes with effective delivery of human services Theme interference--A special type of transference in which the consultee experiences an unexplainable ?block? in progressing on a case

107. Program-Centered Administrative Consultation Process Assessment of mental health aspects of some program or internal functioning of the organization Consultant should be knowledgeable and experienced in organizational theory and practice, program development, fiscal policy, administrative procedures and personal management Administrator acts as principle consultee

108. Application for Program-Centered Administrative Process Scanning--a general overview of the organization and its functions Gather and interpret additional data Consultant makes interim recommendations Formal report of recommendations for both short-term and long-term goals and methods of implementation

109. The Consultee-Centered Administrative Consultation Process The consultant works with an organization?s administrative-level personnel to help solve problems in personal management or implementation of organizational policy The administrator has the job of helping the consultant decide whether additional forms of consultation are required, whether there are to be other consultees and how involved they are to be in the consultation process

110. Application of Consultee-Centered Administrative Consultation Process Beginnings follow the same methods as other consultation processes Determine who consultees will be Study the organization?s social system and identify problems and issues

111. Ecological Perspective Provides consultants with a way of making changes within a given system Helps individuals contribute significantly Helps people adapt to the setting in which something is expected of them Resources of the organization are an important part of facilitating change during consultation Prevention is the key goal Considers how persons, settings and events can become resources for positive developments with an organization

112. Mental health collaboration contrasted with mental health consultation

113. Multicultural Aspects Client-centered allows for minimal disclosure on the part of the consultee Consultee-case suitable for consultees wanting assistance from a knowledgeable authority figure Increased breadth and flexibility allow fro sensitivity to cultural variables

114. Chapter X: Behavioral Consultation and Collaboration

115. Behavioral Consultation Defined A relationship whereby services consistent with a behavioral orientation are provided either indirectly to a client or system or directly by training consultees to enhance their skills with clients and/or systems

116. Characteristics of Behavioral Consultation Use of indirect service delivery models Reliance on behavioral technology principles Diversity of intervention goals Changes aimed at various targets in different settings

117. Key Concepts in Behavioral Consultation Scientific View of Behavior Emphasis on current influences on behavior Principles of behavior change

118. The Consultation Process Behavioral case consultation Behavioral technology training Behavioral systems consultation

119. Behavioral Case Consultation A consultant provides direct, behavior-based service to a consultee concerning the management of a client or group of clients assigned to the consultee Consultants use a system problem-solving process to assist consultee with their clients

120. Verbalization Technology Control of the consultant?s and consultee?s verbalizations by the consultant for full benefit and effectiveness for the consultation process to occur Four Aspects: message source message content message process message control

121. Four Stages of Problem Identification for Behavioral Case Consultation Problem identification stage Problem analysis Plan (treatment) implementation stage Problem (treatment) evaluation stage

122. Behavioral Technology Training Used when consultees seek to increase general usage of behavioral technology principles when working with clients Often used in schools

123. The Training The consultant trains consultees in general behavior principles or specific behavioral technology skills Can be formal or informal Individual or group Education/training model (chap. 9) is similar to this training

124. Behavioral Systems Consultation Behavioral technology principles are applied to a social system The consultant uses principles to analyze and change interactions among various sub-systems of a larger social system or between two or more interactive systems

125. The Consultant?s Function and Roles An expert in behavioral systems consultation, systems theory, and behavioral ecology Guides consultee through a systematic problem-solving process Consultation relationship is collaborative

126. Implications for Consultation Behavioral systems consultation assumes that all or part of a system is experiencing functional difficulty Consultation consists of the following: system definition system assessment system intervention system evaluation

127. Conjoint Behavioral Consultation Uses parents and teachers as conjoint consultees Designed to bridge the gap between the school and the home and maximize the spread of effects form one setting to another

128. Collaboration from a Behavioral Perspective The use of behavioral collaboration can be increased by organizations making effective use of behavioral technology training

129. Multicultural Aspects Related to Behavioral Consultation Appealing to cultural groups that do not freely express feelings Valuable to cultural groups that want concrete and predictable outcomes

130. Chapter XI: Organizational Consultation and Collaboration

131. Organizational Consultation Defined The process in which a professional provides assistance of a technical, diagnostic/prescriptive, or facilitative nature to an individual or group from that organization to enhance the organization?s ability to deal with change and maintain or enhance its effectiveness in some designated way.

132. Key Concepts in Organizational Consultation The organization as client Process is as important as content

133. Edgar Schein?s Model of Consultation Purchase of Expertise Education/Training consultation Program Consultation The Doctor/Patient Model The Process Model

134. The Purchase of Expertise Model The consultee knows what the problem is, what needs to be done to solve the problem and who can help solve it The consultant comes in as an expert to simply solve the problem

135. Education/Training Consultation The most frequently used purchase of expertise consultation The consultant provides education/training services in any number of areas and settings

136. Critical Skills for Education/Training Consultation Assessing training needs Developing and stating measurable objectives Understanding the learning and change process Designing a learning experience Planning and designing educational events

137. Critical Skills for Educational/ Training Consultation Using heuristic laboratory methods Using multiple learning stimuli Functioning as a group teacher or trainer Helping others learn how to learn

138. Four Steps of Educational/Training Consultation Needs assessment Planning education/training activities Performing education/training Evaluation

139. Program Consultation A form of purchase expertise consultation in which the organization in some way uses the consultant to help plan a new program or revise or deal with factors that affect an existing program The goal is to provide an organization technical assistance so that a given program can be successful

140. The Doctor/Patient Model The consultee knows something is wrong, but does not know what is wrong. The consultant is given the power to make a diagnosis and prescribe a solution The goal is to define the problem and recommend realistic interventions

141. Critical Skills for the Doctor/Patient Model Diagnostic skills Prescriptive skills In-depth knowledge of organizational theory Ability to ?read? organizations Data collection skills Date interpretation skills Human relations skills

142. The Process Model The consultant?s expertise should include skills to involve the consultee in defining the problem, to form a team with the consultee and to ensure that the consultation process focuses on the consultee?s needs The consultant makes the consultee a more effective problem solver

143. Seven Steps to Process Consultation Making initial contact Defining the relationship Selecting a setting and method of work Gathering data/making diagnosis Intervening Reducing involvement Terminating

144. More on Process Consultation Prevention is the key goal Process consultation considers how persons, settings and events can become resources for positive developments within an organization

145. Collaboration from an Organizational Perspective Aim is same as organizational consultation: the enhanced functioning of the organization The emergence of the internal consultant role has created many opportunities for collaboration in organizations

146. Multicultural Aspects Related to Organizational Consultation Cultural groups that prefer structured, expert-based consultation will find the purchase of expertise model attractive Cultural groups preferring assistance in problem definition will find the doctor/patient model attractive Cultural groups for which the relationship is essential will prefer the process model

147. Chapter XII: School Based Consultation and Collaboration

148. School Based Consultation and Collaboration Consultation and collaboration are effective in providing psychological services in the schools As the mental health and instructional needs of students have become of increasing concern, interest in consultation and collaboration has increased commensurately

149. School Based Consultation and Collaboration cont?d School-based consultation can be focused on primary prevention, secondary prevention or tertiary prevention

150. School Based Consultation and Collaboration cont?d The manner in which consultation and collaboration take place in schools varies according to the model being employed

151. Consulting and Collaborating with School Administrators The school?s leadership is a powerful force in determining the extent to which consultation and collaboration are considered acceptable services Administrators have priorities and pressures for which they may actively seek consultation

152. Organizational Development Consultation School administrator + school-based consultant A way of making carefully planned, predictable change in a school The goal is to enhance the school?s effectiveness by helping school personnel understand and effectively act on problems and move toward self-renewal

153. Consulting and Collaborating with Teachers School-based consultants assist teachers with both academically and behavioral challenged children as well as those with lesser concerns School consultation and collaboration can be effective and efficient ways to help teachers enhance their professional skills

154. Alderian Consultation: Consultation with teachers Four Basic Assumptions: teachers cannot take responsibility for student behavior teachers should be more involved with encouragement than with praise teachers cannot always prevent failure on the part of the student teachers need to try to meet affective and cognitive needs of students

155. C-Group Forces of the group: Consultation Collaboration Clarification Caring Confrontation Communication Cohesion Commitment Change Concern Confidentiality

156. C-Group cont?d The group consist of four to six teachers and the consultant It meets once a week Six to eight sessions Teacher presents problems with individual student and group discusses them

157. Instructional Consultation A collaborative process in which a problem is identified and interventions are selected and made

158. Steps of Instructional Consultation Establishing collaborative relationship Identifying problem Observing classroom Assessing curriculum-based learning Planning instructional intervention Terminating

159. Consulting and Collaborating with Parents/Guardians/Extended Families Schools are consciously attempting to assist children and increase parental/guardian involvement in the school There is no ?one? eclectic model of parent consultaion or collaboration

160. Parent Case Consultation Can be Alderian, behavior, or mental health The goal is to promote increased positive involvement by parents in the school life of their child and improve family relationships

161. Parent Education A variation of the education/training consultation model (chap. 9) Parent effectiveness training Alderian approaches Behavioral approaches

162. Home School Collaboration Goal is to create effective partnerships between school-based professionals and parents to enhance student learning In collaborating with parents, school-based professionals ensure that parents are true partners, are viewed as experts on their children, and have some responsibility for the outcomes.

163. Cross-Cultural Considerations When Working with Parents Culture directly influences the family in a significant manner Consultants can ensure that schools remove barriers for non-mainstream parents Consultants will want to exercise caution in making any kind of generalizations regarding any characteristics of a given culture

164. Interagency Collaboration Rationale: The problems of children with social and/or educational problems effect all aspects of a child?s life such as the home and school.

165. Interagency cont?d The shared responsibility for the case shifts the focus from what the school can do to what the community should do to provide services

166. Pragmatic Issues of School-Based Consultation Ethical issues Working with other school-based consultants Systems view of the school

167. More Pragmatic Issue for S-B Consultation Develop a framework for prevention and intervention Time constraints

168. Multicultural School Consultation Ethnic and linguistic minority children constitute the most rapidly growing segment of the youth population in the U.S. Consultants take into account both individual differences and cultural issues so as not to overemphasize cultural variables

169. School Consultation in the 21st Century Consultation and collaboration will: Focus more on positively impacting all students Develop culturally sensitive interventions Engage in system-level initiatives Use data-driven decision making

170. Chapter XIII Case Study Illustrations

171. Case Study Illustrations cont?d The purpose of this chapter is to assist you to apply theory t practice and obtain a more realistic picture of what transpires in consultation. ACME Human Services Center Typescript of consultation and collaboration sessions


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