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Introduction to Criminal Justice. Chapter 5. History of Policing. As society has changed, so has the methods of keeping the peace Earliest record of society control is 2300BC under Sumerian rulers The Roman Empire’s social control was lost with the Germanic invasions

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Introduction to Criminal Justice

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Introduction to criminal justice l.jpg

Introduction to Criminal Justice

Chapter 5


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History of Policing

As society has changed, so has the methods of keeping the peace

Earliest record of society control is 2300BC under Sumerian rulers

The Roman Empire’s social control was lost with the Germanic invasions

The Anglo-Saxons grouped their farms into self-governing villages that “policed” themselves


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History of Policing

  • King Alfred the Great (849-899AD), required every male to enroll for police purposes – a collective responsibility for maintaining local law and order – known as the tithing system

  • William the Conqueror (1066) replaced the tithing system with military districts called shires headed up by an officer called a reeve

  • William also established the frankpledge system where all free men swore loyalty to the king’s law and take responsibility for the peace


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Question?

  • Reeve and shire are the

    base root for what common

    word we use in law

    enforcement today?


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History of Policing

  • By 17th century, law enforcement duties were divided into day and night watch

    • The day watch had constables who served as jailers

    • The night watch were citizens; each citizen took turns watching for fires, bad weather, and disorderly individuals

    • If the citizen saw a crime, he was to give the hue and cry, a summons for all citizens to join in on pursing and capturing the wrongdoer


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History of Policing

  • Metropolitan Police of London (1829)

    • Recognized as the world’s first organized police force

    • Organized by Sir Robert Peel

    • Officers known as “Bobbies”

    • Uniforms were used to distinguish officers from citizens

    • Peel’s principles emphasized the interdependency of the police and the public and the duties were to prevent crime and disorder


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What have we relied on police to do in our society?

  • In U. S., early policing had little to do with crime control

  • Controlled selected groups (slaves, Native Americans); abusive system

  • Delivered goods, maintained health and sanitation, controlled gambling and vice

  • Modern society relies on law enforcement to control and prevent crime


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Question????

  • Why do we call the police in London “Bobbies?”


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History of Policing

  • In the US, there was British rule and punishments; therefore, colonial policing was similar to England

  • Following the Revolutionary War, US cities were using the day and night watch

  • The county sheriff was the primary law enforcement authority; paid by a fee system – for every arrest, he earned a fixed amount

  • Towns had a local marshal (this is not the US Marshal); local government had very little control over the marshal; very individualistic style of policing


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Evolution of Community Policing

  • In 1789, the Congress created the position of US Marshall; Duties were:

    > Support the federal courts

    > Carry out orders of the courts, Congress, or the President,

    >To collect taxes; Taxes on whiskey

    > Enforce the slave trade laws in 1819; Fugitive Slave Law of 1850


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History of Police in U. S.

  • 1801---Boston formalized the night watch. (Paid $.50 per night)

  • 1833---Philadelphia employed both night watch and “reactive patrol units” to enforce law and prevent crime.

  • 1838---Boston formed first formal police department.

  • 1844---New York combined both day and night watch under a single Chief.

  • Early police were ill recruited and poorly trained; political “hacks”


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“Spoils” or Patronage System

  • Was prevalent during “political era” of policing, 1840-1930

  • Rampant police corruption and political influence

  • 1929—Wickersham Commission focused on police brutality and corruption

  • Suggested reforms of personnel standards, centralized police administration and increased use of technology


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Toward Improved Professionalism

  • The Reform Era, 1930-1980

  • August Vollmer---Father of Modern Policing, wrote The Police and Modern Society

  • Use of cars for patrol and science to solve crimes

  • Creation of first juvenile crime units

  • O. W. Wilson then promoted professionalism, removing the police from politics, and better organization and technology

  • Assisted in reorganizing police forces in Europe after World War I.


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Administrative Improvements During the Reform Era

  • Reorganization of many large police forces

  • Chief took more control over departments

  • Mid-level managerial positions added

  • Special units formed—investigation, vice, narcotics

  • Technology used and shared between agencies

  • More distance from community---”Dragnet” and “Thin Blue Line” models

  • FBI formed by J. Edgar Hoover in 1929


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History of Policing

  • Hoover helped the FBI establish a modern crime lab technology, fingerprinting, detailed criminal records, statistics, and (later) computerization

  • The “10 most wanted” list

  • He established the National Police Academy to train in the latest methods


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Turmoil in the 1960’s

  • Civil Rights Movement---Helplessness and impoverishment in African American communities

  • Assassinations of public leaders

  • Civil unrest led to violence and riots

  • Police brutality exacerbated riots

  • Conflict between police and public in many communities---Us vs. them


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Reforms of the 1960’s

  • 1968---Several government initiatives to address problems in law enforcement

  • Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act---Federal funds for police, community programs

  • President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice---Groundbreaking recommendations


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History of Policing

  • Many police departments began efforts to enhance relations with the community

  • Public relations – one way communication to raise the image of the department; we will tell you what we are doing but leave us alone to fight crime

  • Limited, short-term effectiveness


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Continuing Efforts to Improve Police—”Community Era”

  • 1970’s---Combined efforts to improve community relations and fight crime

  • Reactive: Reduce amount of time for police to react to crimes

  • Proactive: Stop crime before committed

  • Community policing: Interactions between officers and community develop a partnership to prevent & fight crime

  • Police become a part of the community


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Law Enforcement Agencies

  • Municipal agencies (cities and towns)

  • Broadest authority to apprehend criminals, maintain order and provide services

  • Wide spectrum of duties; traffic, calls for service, criminal investigation

  • Some believe they are too low paid to handle all important duties


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Sheriffs and County Law Enforcement

  • In most states, elected officials

  • May not be law enforcement professional; politician

  • Departments vary greatly in size

  • Most assigned duties by state law


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Responsibilities of Sheriffs

  • 90% of departments have primary responsibility for investigating violent crimes.

  • Other common responsibilities---

    ---Protecting public

    ---Monitoring county jail

    ---Serving criminal and civil processes

    ---Order in the courthouse

    ---Enforce orders of the courts


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Coroner (Medical Examiner)

  • County elected official in most states

  • Investigates “sudden, unexplained, unnatural or suspicious deaths”

  • Performs autopsies in homicides

  • Determines cause of death

  • The State Medical Examiner is a pathologist appointed by governor who performs assists state-wide with autopsies


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State Police and State Patrol

  • Assist local police agencies

  • Texas Ranger were first such agency, formed in 1835

  • Investigate criminal activities across jurisdictions (counties, cities)

  • Provide law enforcement in rural areas

  • State patrols have more limited authority than state police (Iowa vs. Michigan)


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History of Policing

  • State of Iowa – Department of Public Safety

    • Iowa State Patrol

    • Division of Criminal Investigation

    • Division of Narcotics Enforcement

    • Crime Lab

    • Division of Fire Marshal

    • Division of Communications

    • Capitol Security – Governor’s Security


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Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

  • Comparatively small number of personnel

  • Significant influence on law enforcement

  • Assist state and local agencies with expertise

  • In unique position to address certain crimes

  • Have jurisdiction over all federal offenses


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Department of Homeland Security

  • Created in 2002 in wake of 9/11

  • Cabinet level department which coordinates federal efforts to protect U. S. against terrorism

  • Has a number of agencies previously assigned to other departments

  • Examples---Secret Service, Border Patrol


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Directorate of Customs and Border Security

  • Oversees two bureaus for immigration enforcement

    ---U. S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) which polices international borders

    ---U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) enforces all customs and immigration laws

    ---U. S. Border Patrol---Guards border to restrict flow of contraband and aliens

    ---Customs Service---Ability to search and investigate all international passengers; tariffs

  • Transportation Security Administration (TSA)


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Secret Service

  • Created in 1865 to combat counterfeit currencies

  • In 1901 assigned to protect president and his family (after McKinley assassination)

  • Also now protect vice-president, candidates

  • Have uniformed division—protects White House, Treasury Building


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Department of Justice

  • Primary law enforcement agency in nation

  • Enforces criminal laws; supervises federal prisons

  • Includes several major investigative agencies: FBI, DEA, ATF, Marshals


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Federal Bureau of Investigation

  • Jurisdiction over 200 federal crimes

  • Not a “national police force”

  • Six priorities:

    ---Terrorism

    ---Organized crime

    ---Cyber crime

    ---Foreign intelligence

    ---Federal violent crime

    ---White collar crime


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Drug Enforcement Administration

  • Has grown very quickly due to exploding criminal activity

  • Enforces domestic drug laws and regulations (Controlled Substances Act)

  • Assists other federal and foreign agencies to combat drug trade


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Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

  • Illegal sale, possession and use of firearms

  • Control of untaxed tobacco and liquor products

  • Collects taxes on firearms importers, manufacturers and dealers


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U. S. Marshals Service

  • Security at the federal courts

  • Control property seized by federal court

  • Protect WITSEC witnesses

  • Transport federal prisoner

  • Investigate violations of fugitive laws


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Private Security

  • Growth industry in U. S.

  • Should only report observe and report crime, unless force needed to prevent a felony

  • Intended to deter crime, not stop it

  • Lack of standards in community

  • Continued growth expected due to fear of crime, crime in the workplace, budget cuts in public police agencies


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History of Policing

  • What are the

    responsibilities

    of the police?


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Responsibilities of the Police

  • “Crime fighter”

  • Seek out and apprehend law violators

  • Provide community services: traffic, emergency medical, domestic counseling, finding lost children, disaster relief, etc.

  • Prevent crime (Police first to get criticism when crime goes up)

  • Preserve the peace


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Police and Domestic Violence

  • Officers historically hesitant to make arrest in a “family matter”

  • Now most departments have mandatory arrest policies

  • Theory---Arrest act as deterrent to violent behavior

  • However, some research has shown this may actually increase repeat violence


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Police and Domestic Violence

  • An alternative policy is “presumption of arrest,” whereby an arrest is required unless there is “a good clear reason” as to why it would be counterproductive


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