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Experimental Particle Physics

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- Day 1
- Particle identification
- Detectors and experiment design
- Day2
- ATLAS detector components
- Physics capabilities
- Harold Ogren, Professor of Physics
- Indiana University, Bloomington, IN

- HEP experiments
- Particle ID
- Time of Flight, Cerenkov,
- Transition radiation detectors

- Gaseous tracking chambers

- Particle ID
- Small Detector
- Designing a mini-detector, how small can you go?
- Details of optimization for a small detector.

# authors on a typical publication

8

30

42

8

50

120

350 SSC(1000?)

1800

- Major in Physics University of Michigan
- PhD Particle physics Cornell- 1970
- Cornell synchrotron- 10 GeV

- Post Doc Frascati, Italy- 1973
- Adone e+e- Storage ring

- CERN Fellow CERN- 1975
- ISR proton- proton storage ring

- Indiana University- 1975
- Fermilab- 1977
- Internal target experiment

- Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
- PEP e+e- storage ring, HRS 1986
- SLC e+e- Collider Mark 2 1990

- CERN
- LEP e+e- storage ring OPAL 1999
- LHC p-p Collider ATLAS 2007
- (US manager for TRT barrel)

- Books: Allison, Wright, Experimental techniques in High Energy Physics, T. Ferbel.
- W. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics.
- Online sources:
- particle data book (PDG LBL)
- DePAC
- NLC-detectors
- EM showers explained
- Particle detector briefbook (CERN)
- This is a classroom for the high energy physics.

- One of the most common methods of
- Particle identification ( at low momenta) is the Time of Flight. If the time of crossing is known for two points on the particle trajectory, then the velocity can be determined. If the momentum (mv) is also known ( by measuring the curvature in a magnetic field), then the mass of the particle can be determined.
- The time is usually measured by scintillators using a photomuliplier to detect the scintillation photons. Other methods such as microchannel plates, or drift chambers also can be used.

b1

b2

L

- Precision time measurements can determine the mass differences of particles with the same momentum.
- I picked 0.5 meters
Since that is the scale

Of many inner detectors

Such as ATLAS ID

1ns= 10-9sec

t1

t2

L

x1

x1

Gluckstern, NIM 24,(1963)381-389

For short flight lengths (50 cm) and dt= 3ns/sqrt(13)=0.83 ns, particle

ID is only good in the sub GeV/c momentum range.

ps timing will allow pi/K separation well above 10 GeV!

Would require Micro Channel plates, not “normal” scintillators and photomultipliers. Resistive plate tracking chambers can give resolutions as good as 50 ps. (more on this later)

Cerenkov and transition radiation

- Describe the radiation by a charged particle as it travel though a dielectric
- 1) Energy loss- already discussed
- 2) Cerenkov radiation
- 3) Transition radiation

Use four vector notation

Bc=v

g=sqrt(1/(1-b2))

P=( p, iE/c) =( gmv, igmc)

(P)2= -m2c2

- Conservation of 4 momentum requires that:

In a vacuum without interaction the radiation of

The photon is at an unphysical angle for any velocity of the incoming particle. i.e no radiation

This kinematics constraint of radiation hold for all types of interactions of a

moving charged particle.

Cerenkov radiation

Radiation in the optical region which is produced along the entire path-length of the charged particle in the media

Transition radiation can be

understood in this manner since it must satisfy the same angular restriction. However, TR is produced only at the boundary.

- In a continuous media with an index of refraction, n=sqrt(dielectric constant) the equations are modified:

Now, since n >1, there is a range of particle velocities 1>b >1/n that allows physical radiation of photons. The angle

Is called the Cerenkov angle.

animation of the radiation from a moving particle.

- Half angle of the radiation cone, n=index of refraction, velocity=bc
- The energy loss per cm due to the radiation of real photons for a particle passing through a dielectric media is calculated in the literature (Jackson).
- The number of photons/cm is:

- Integration of the differential intensity

In an actual detector the integration over the photon energy (E) must be done taking into account the detector efficiency and the collection efficiency.

Threshold Cerenkov counter- simple yes/no decision on whether a charged particle is above or below b = 1/n threshold. Assuming full collection efficiency and a phototube with about 25% efficiency,

- Assume that the index of refraction is n=1.00085, which is characteristic of many Freon gases. Then we can write:

The probability of seeing r photons, when the number produced is 0.15*L, is given by the Poisson distribution. The distance necessary to make 1% probability to see 0 photons,

P(0)= 0.01 -> L=30 cm ( ~4.5 photons)

- The Cerenkov cone of photons can be directly imaged in some applications.
- Many types of imaging are possible.
( a reflecting mirror or lens will focus all parallel rays to a fixed focal point)

RICH- ring imaging Cerenkov counter.

So, an imaging counter could separate a pion from a kaon from the threshold

momentum of the pion though the momenta where the kaon is also radiating,

up to the momenta when the kaon and pion angular separation is comparable to the angular resolution of the detector ( for instance, 5 mrad).

- Threshold Cerenkov detectors
- A radiator and light detector ( photomultiplier). Particles with a velocity above the threshold for producing Cerenkov light are detected, while others are not. If a gas is used as the radiator, its refractive index, and so the threshold velocity, can be tuned by adjusting the pressure.

- Differential Cerenkov detectors
- They respond to a range of velocities. This is typically arranged by being sensitive to a certain range of Cerenkov angles, for example by having mirrors and/or baffles between the radiator and the light detector.

- Ring-Imaging Cerenkov detectors
- In neutrino experiments the photon ring is views directly by an array of photomultipliers.
- Mirrors are often used to focus the cone of Cerenkov light into a ring on a position-sensitive light detector or array of detectors. In this way, the centre of the ring indicates the position of the particle and the radius of the ring measures the Cerenkov angle and so the velocity of the particle.
- Light detectors can include multiwire proportional chambers, containing a gas mixture sensitive to visible or ultra-violet photons.

- the number of Cerenkov photons produced by an electron or photon is proportional to the kinetic energy, so the total energy of a shower is quite accurately proportional to the number of photoelectrons measured. However, absolute energy calibration is still necessary.
- Active calorimeters rely on this Cerenkov effect.( Pb-glass, etc)

OPAL EM calorimeter

- Radiation is produced when a charged particle traverses a boundary between two media with different dielectric properties.
- We can characterize the media in terms of the index of refraction and the plasma frequency (onset of absorption)which is typically about 20 eV.

Ne is the electron density

a is the Bohr radius

TRT end cap TR detector - tracker

- Total rate from one interface
- Calculation from foils
- Concept for the ATLAS TRT barrel

Im(e)

Re(e)

1.0

0

optical

Absorptive- Xray

1.001

0

-1.001

hwPlasma

Frequency

n= (eRe + ieIm)1/2

- The production cross section from one interface is derived (Jackson) in a very similar way as for Cerenkov radiation
- (Allison&Wright)
- This is the calculation and integration of the TR from one surface, however.
- The g dependence is interesting but not really relevant for TR produced from foils for from fibers (as the case for the ATLAS TRT)
- Angles typically ~ 1/g
- Energy typically ~ gwp
- The photons from the front and back faces have opposite phases, so if the two faces are very close, the two waves cancel out!

n

- Calculate the time shift
between a photon created at the front edge and one created at the back edge, as viewed from infinity.

f

q

b

L

L tan(q)

f

Typical medium for radiators has a value of about 20eV.

1GeV electron has g=2000

Radiation peaks near f ~ 1/g

Spectrum peaks ~ 0.3gwp=6 eV*2000

The interference is given by Sin(L/Z), We would like the

Physical size of the Radiator foil to be Comparable to Z or

Larger. Foils in TRT are about 20 microns. So we expect TR to “saturate” above 300 GeV.

- The total output of TR x-rays will be increased by having multiple interfaces- “stacked foils”.
- Three considerations:
- Coherence of the photon amplitudes from each interface.
- Absorption of x-rays
- Multiple scattering

Overall coherence is impossible, but it is clear that the foil thickness and the separation should be approximately the same, and that the incoherent mix might approach the sum of the individual intensities ( a photons (peak) per interface)

The summed intensity should be similar to a “multiple slit”, with the phase between emitters being from both the foil thickness and the separation of the foils.

Spectrum of TR photons

Is proportional to 1/w

- Although about half of the TR is in the energy region, (0.1-1.0)hw, the spectra is dominated by low energy x-rays. These are absorbed in the radiator and gas (refractive index is imaginary).
- This photo-absorption dominates the x-ray spectrum for Kev photons.

We can expect that in the keV region that the absorption length

Will be about 0.001 gm/cm2. For a fiber density of 0.07gm/cm2

This will give an absorption length of 0.013cm!

Better information on the web.

- Particle id is obtained by looking at the energy deposited by E>5 KeV photons in the straws along a particle track.
- The evolution is quite complex
- Transition radiation produces a spectrum of x-rays
- X-rays are attenuated in the material outside the straws. The density of the fiber is about 0.07 gm/cm3. For 5.5 KeV photons the attenuation length is 17mm.
- X-rays pass into the straw and deposit all of their energy at one point in the gas. The attenuation length of a 5.5 KeV photon is several centimeters.
- Although the probability is only about 25% for deposition in a straw, there are typically about 35 crossed straws for a full track in the barrel.
- The PH is triggered if it is above 5.5KeV for every straw and the an electron efficiency for 4, 5, 6, 7 hits can be determined.

- TRT barrel was designed to have about 6-mm of polyethylene fiber in front of each detector. The detectors were 4 mm diameter straws filled with mainly Xe gas.
- Xenon gas was used because the photoabsorption cross-section is large(~z2)
- The attenuation length in Xe for a 5KeV x-ray is of the order 0.001 gm/cm2, 4mm of Xe has a thickness of 0.0023 gm/cm2. So the majority of lower energy x-rays are absorbed and deposit their energy in the Xe gas.

The

2T field gives a radius of curvature

For the track of:

R=p/(0.3*2T)= 1 GeV/0.6=1.6m

( Looping tracks if R<0.5m, p<0.3 GeV.)

The deviation of the circular track from

The tangent to the circle is given by

Y=x2/(2R)= 0.3Bx2/(2p

Suppose we pick a maximum deviation

Of Y=4mm, then

x=11.4 cm sqrt(p), this is the distance

A track progresses before the TR

Produced at the beginning of the track

Becomes separated from the track itself

By 4mm.

Even for p=0.3 GeV, x = 62mm, which is

long compared to the attenuation length of the x-rays.

- The 2 T field bends the tracks as they travel outward through the TRT.
- If the track is bent too much then the TR will not be deposited in the same straw that the charged particle passes through.
- When does this be come serious?

- The additional task of the TRT system to track charged particles through the magnetic (2T) in the central region of ATLAS.
- Design had to be optimized for both tracking in a high rate regime and for registering TR radiation. ( more later)
- Discussion about drift chambers before we look at the ATLAS TRT in more detail.

- Charge particles pass through a gas cell, leaving a trail of ionized atoms and free electron. The electrons move along the electric field lines to the anode signal wire.
- Very near the wire the electrons trigger the electrons shower to form an avalanche with typical multiplication of 2x 104.
- The time of the arrival of this avalanche is used to determine the radial distance the electron “drifted”. The drift time in a 2mm radius straw detector is about 30 ns.
- Multiple measurements along the track allow the trajectory to be determined with a typical accuracy of 100-150 microns/straw.

e

V=-1500V

30 m dia. signal wire at center

- The charged particle loses energy (dE/dX) as it passed through the gas. Many of the interactions (encounters) yield multiple electrons. Multielectron hits are sometimes called clusters.
- For Xe there is about 8 electrons/interaction as can be seen in the table, and about 4.6 interactions/mm for an average distance between clusters of about 220 microns.

-V

- The tracks of the electrons as the drift to the signal wire a not radial. The look like a spiral due to the vxB forces.
- This increases the time to arrive at the wire but does not alter much else.
- For the 4 mm straws this increased the time for max drift from 32ns to 39ns.
- Increases the dead time of the straw and increases the pile up from multiple crossings.

B out

- The electric field near the wire is radial, and is given by
- E=CV/2pe0r
- C=2pe0/(ln(b/a)
- a is wire radii
- B is cathode radii
- The “Gain” of the wire is as a function of the voltage is exponential. Depends on gas parameters.

- Gains of depend on gas mixtures, Electric fields. Measure signal is a combination of the rapid electron arrival, and the slower motion of the positive ion cloud drifting away from the wire.
- For Xe-Co2 with a 31 micron diameter wire, the gain is 2x 104 for a voltage of -1465V applied to the straw and the wire effectively grounded.

The electron drift times for

An ensemble of particle tracks

Crossing the straws, shows a

Roughly uniform distribution from

The minimum time, T0, to the

Maximum drift time from the

Cathode wall.

- New TRT calibration and alignment constants produced for the run 2102204 (P. Hansen). The following procedure is used:
- From TRT standalone tracking, the “V-plot” (drift time vs. track position at a straw) are made for each straw to extract the t0, the drift velocity and the wire position.
- R(t) plot is fitted after averaging the two legs of the V-plot and correcting it for t0. A third degree polynomial is used.
- The straw displacements with respect to the track are minimized by rotating the modules.

- The calibration constants can be read from a text file, the alignment constants are written in the conditions database.

P. Hansen

- RT dependence fit is used for reconstruction of hit coordinate via measured drift-time
- Particle track position inside the straw is predicted using information from SCT.
- Estimation of coordinate accuracy was made using residual distributions
- Two kinds of efficiency were estimated: total and 2.5s
- Straw profiles were used to calculate straw total efficiency

- Coordinate accuracy and efficiency behave reasonably at different thresholds
- Coordinate accuracy and total efficiency are comparable with the previous year values
- 2.5s efficiency in this year prototype is higher because of lower noise level

- The principle of operation for an MWPC is similar to the previous discussion of drift chambers. One plane of wires with a cathode plane on either side. Near the wire the field is radial, but it linear through out most of the chamber. Wire gain is controlled by running in the proportional region.

- A form of drift chamber is the Time Projection Chamber (TPC).
- This contains a large drift volume (~2 m long by ~2 m radius ).
- An electric field of the order of 100 kV per meter drifts charge onto MWPCs at the end of the drift volume.
- Magnetic field reduces diffusion.
- 2-dimensional x-y readout, with the third co-ordinate being supplied by the drift time before the signal arrives at the MWPC at either end of the chamber.
Spatial resolution in 3D to 60 microns can be achieved with such a TPC.

Measurement of signal size gives dE/dX information about track.

Transition Radiation Tracker

Type 1-----Type 2----------Type3

M1.32 M2.32 M3.32

Type 1 32 * 329 straws in type 1 =10528

Type 2 32* 520 straws in type2 =16640

Type 3 32* 793 straws in type 3 =25376

52544 total straws

- 96 modules and 9 spares.

CTB Set-up

Irradiated TRT area.

Close to the area with

maximum bent straws.

Combined Test Beam

Production electronics

boards on front end of all modules..

Full readout backend electronics.

Production modules

with Xe-CO2 gas system.

- Combining the tracking and TR
- Recording TR and track information
- Energy loss in a gas
- Xenon
- Cluster sizes
- Effects of Magnetic fields
- Measuring arrival times
- Separating tracks and TR

Poisson

Data

- Number of high-level hits for electron and pion

<E>=6.6

<P>=1.5

- TDR

- CTB data

<E>=6.5

<P>=1.5

- Try to separate electrons from pions by requiring a minimum number of TRT high-level hits per track

- For 90% electron efficiency
- TDR: 4%
- measured: 7%

- Needs to be investigated further

- At least 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 HL hits per track

TR hit probability along beam axis

- Mixed beam at 2 GeV

1st MODULE

2nd MODULE

3rd MODULE

- TR accumulation effect over first radiator layers

- TR probability drops at module boundaries

- Similar behaviour observed for different beam energies

Number of TR hits as function of beam energy

- Number of hits is stable for pions and increases by ~ 1.5 for electrons

- Naively, we expect the electron TR curve to reach the saturation level quickly, i.e. below ~ 3 GeV

- Indiana University
- Construct Module type 3, 1
- Order shells, radiator punching
- Production- Assembly of all of Modules of type 1, and 1/2 of Module type 3.
- Modules are now at CERN.

- The same technique
Is used for the

End Cap TRTs.

Radial straws and foil

Radiators.

More than 400,000

Straws in total.

DTMROC Die Size 7.7 x 9.3 mm

- ASDBLR Die Size
- 3.6 x 3.6 mm

20 ASDBLRs

Active Roof Boards

- 6 different shapes per side
- Very compact design
- ASDBLR’s on bottom
- DTMROC’s on top
- Custom FBGA packages
Status

- 8 different board shapes successfully tested in the CTB
- Type-1 production finished
- burn-in, test & rework in progress
- installation on detector started

- Type-2 production started
- Type-3 ready for production (need final review)

AR1FS

10 DTMROCs

- What are the major constraints?
- Beam Size
- LHC sx,y =16 microns, sz=7 cm
- ILC sx,y =1 microns, sz= 1.0 cm

- Beam Pipe
- LHC R= 3.8 cm
- ILC R= 1.0 cm

- The eta acceptance might be ~ n=3.0
- This will set the length of the inner layer:
- LHC Full length 76 cm- 1800cm2 cylinder
- ILC Full length 20 cm- 130 cm2 cylinder

- Tracking:
- Pixel detectors
- Limit on pixel size
- LHC- 50-400 microns
- ~25 cells/mm2

- SLD 20-20 microns
- ~1.4x103 cells/mm2

- ILC 5-5 microns
- ~2x104cells/mm2

- Inner layer pixel number
- LHC 4x106
- ILC 250x106

- The over-all size will be set by the physics that must be addressed;
- Tracking
- Magnetic fields- momentum measure
- Electromagnetic calorimeter
- Hadronic Calorimeter
- Muon identification

Beam

L

x1

x2

Gluckstern, NIM 24(1963) 381-389, Particle Data book,sec 27.11

Consider the measurement of a circular track with N tracking layers equally spaced along the track.

The major variable in this

Equation that must be considered

Is the L dependence. Since the

improvement of the momentum

Generally increases the size of the

tracking space.

How small can we make L?

How small can we make

the tracking resolution in each layer?

How big can we make B?

What are the physics criteria?

Although this is correct only for

A uniform system, we can

Approximate the result as a limit

on the amount of material in the

Three layers. The result indicates

That multiple scattering will never

Limit the sign determination.

If we wanted the multiple scattering

To be less than 10% of measurement

Error, then

L/x = 0.03 p2 (gm/cm2/layer)

Assume that the requirement is to discriminate the sign of a charged

Particle that is equal to the beam energy.

Assume P=7000Gev/c. (LHC)

Pick a resolution that is excellent but not impossible:

( ILC is discussing a system that has 5 micron resolution/layer)

Since we are designing a small system, a large field B=4T will

be assumed with three layers.

- Time measurements
- Tracking
- EM calorimeter- electron, photons
- Hadronic shower- jets of hadrons
- Muon absorber – muons

- Abstract--We propose to measure the velocity of particles produced at a hadron or lepton collider by measuring the timeof- flight in a finely segmented cylindrical geometry, in which the particles product Cherenkov light while traversing the window of one element in an array of large-area (e.g. 5 cm x 5 cm) multi-channel-plate photomultipliers (MCP’s). There has been a substantial improvement in the time resolution of MCP’s, which now have achieved a 10-psec transit-time spread (FWHM) for a single photon. We have simulated the Cherenkov emission and MCP response spectra for several commercially available MCP’s, and find that a TOF resolution on the order of 1 psec should be attainable. This would allow K / p separation a s 1 up to a transverse momentum of c GeV/ 25 » in a detecto such as CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron. It may also be possible to associate a photon with its production vertex by conversion directly in front of the MCP. The system we are considering requires a custom large-area MCP design with an anode consisting of impedance-matched segments, directly coupled to a circuit capable of pse resolution. Possible problems we know of so far are showering in the magnet coil that is in front of the system and stray magnetic field outside the coil. One last consideration is the cost, which will be comparable to othermajor detector subsystems.

Assuming 1 ps resolution and 50 cm flight path

- Energy resolution and shower size.
- a is the stochastic term, b is a constant, and sN is a noise term.
- Sampling calorimeters( alternating showering material(Hi Z) and measurement media( i.e. LAr) have a~10%
- Active Calorimeters (lead glass etc) have a~2%.
- Try to keep b and sN smaller than stochastic term.

Invariant mass resolution for a

Two photon state, depends on the

Energy resolution of of each

photon E1, E2, and the angular

Resolution.

- at peak of emission; b. up/low row: slow/fast component; c. measured by PMT of bi-alkali cathode.
- (From Zho, 2002)

BaF2

CsI

CeF3

BGO

1.5 X0 Cubic

PbWO4

BaBar CsI(Tl)

Full Size Samples

BaBar CsI(Tl): 16 X0

L3 BGO: 22 X0

CMS PWO(Y): 25 X0

L3 BGO

CMS PWO(Y)

- Assume crystals 2 cm square, 25 cm long at A radius of 60 cm, total length along beam is ~200cm
- Assume a preshower silicon system to improve spatial resolution.
- 188 crystals in a ring, 100 in Z,
- Total of 18800 crystals

Outside of calorimeter has a radius of about 90cm

and a length of about 2 meters!

- B=5T solenoid with radius 1 meter and
- Length ~4 meters.
- Assume that the thickness is 30 cm and that it includes a presampler for the Hadronic calorimeter! ( you design)

- Hadronic interactions result in cascades of particles- pions, electrons, photons, muons. The relevant length is the nuclear interaction length,LI.

Fe Li= 131, 16 cm

W Li = 185, 9.5 cm

Pb Li= 194,17.2 cm

Pt Li= 189, 8.8

So, the hadronic section of the “small” calorimeter would occupy >1 meter.

Typical resolution ~ 40%/Sqrt(E)

Muon system is a multilayer tracker (4), covering the radial range 2.3 meters to 2.5 meters. Barrel length is 4 meters, plus end caps.

- Identify the muon, but do not have a separate momentum measurement. ( perhaps low field rejection of low energy tracks, layered tracking.)
- Energy loss of muon is ~1.9 MeV/g-cm2
- Typical thickness~2000 gmcm2, so
- 4 GeV/c Muon ranges out.

This exercise has already been done for the International

Linear collider. We would like to make the smallest detector

With good physics capabilities.

[1] GLD is a tentative name of the Large/Huge detector model.

All parameters are tentative.

- Even a Small Detector is pretty large!