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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Digital Electronics' - Albert_Lan

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Analog Vs. Digital

Winter Quarter

Analog Vs. Digital

- Analog
- Continuous
- Can take on any values in a given range
- Very susceptible to noise

- Digital
- Discrete
- Can only take on certain values in a given range
- Can be less susceptible to noise

Winter Quarter

The Transistor

- Basic element of digital electronics
- Typically built into integrated circuits
- Can act like a “switch”

Winter Quarter

Boolean Algebra

- Symbolic representation of logic statements
- Uses many basic arithmetic symbols: +, -, (), etc.

Winter Quarter

Truth Table

A

Y

B

A

B

Y

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

Boolean Equation

1

1

1

Y = A•B

Basic Logic Circuits: ANDWinter Quarter

Truth Table

A

Y

B

A

B

Y

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

Boolean Equation

1

1

1

Y = A+B

Basic Logic Circuits: ORWinter Quarter

Truth Table

A

Y

A Y

0

1

1

0

Boolean Equation

_

Y = A

Basic Logic Circuits: NOTWinter Quarter

Truth Table

A

B

Y

A

Y

B

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

Boolean Equation

_____

Y = (A•B)

Basic Logic Circuits: NAND- NAND = “not AND”
- Commonly used to implement other logic circuits

Winter Quarter

Truth Table

A

B

Y

A

Y

B

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

Boolean Equation

1

1

0

_____

Y = (A+B)

Basic Logic Circuits: NOR- NOR = “not OR”

Winter Quarter

A collection of many transistors, resistors, and capacitors on a single silicon wafer

The wafer is mounted to a carrier for ease of use and dissipation of heat

8

7

1

5

Notches mark pin 1 end or pin 1 of IC

(highlighted for clarity)

4

1

Integrated Circuits (Chips)Winter Quarter

Prototype board for circuit layout on a single silicon wafer

Terminal posts for power (red) and ground (black) connections

Winter Quarter

- Back side of Prototyping Board on a single silicon wafer

Metal strips create electrically-connected holes on the front

Winter Quarter

Note the gaps where there are no electrical connections on a single silicon wafer

Winter Quarter

Examples of electrically-connected holes on a single silicon wafer

Winter Quarter

And the corresponding gaps on a single silicon wafer

Winter Quarter

The channel is for ICs so that each pin will have its own independent row of connected holes

Winter Quarter

Light Emitting Diodes (LED) independent row of connected holes

- Function depends on orientation
- Pass electrical current in one direction only
- Illuminates when current is flowing through it
- Emits light proportional to current through diode
- Must have current limited by a resistor in series

Winter Quarter

Power MOSFETs independent row of connected holes

- Allows control of high current DC loads by low-voltage digital signals
- With a ‘1’ signal at the gate, current may flow from drain to source. Otherwise, the path is closed

Winter Quarter

Laying Out the Circuit independent row of connected holes

- Chips “bridge” the gaps
- Devices in adjacent horizontal rows are connected
- Make sure power is turned off until circuit is finished!

Winter Quarter

Today’s Goals independent row of connected holes

- Build digital circuits on your breadboards and determine their function
- Test the Mystery Circuit
- Build a circuit to operate a motor with a power MOSFET

Winter Quarter

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