Chapter Five: The First Two Years: Biosocial Development

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. . Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is the sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant, whose death remains unexplained after the performance of an adequate postmortem investigation including (1) an autopsy, (2) investigation of the scene and circumstances of the death and (3) exploration of the medical history of the infant and family.In a typical situation parents check on their supposedly sleeping infant to find him or her dead. This is the 9441

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Chapter Five: The First Two Years: Biosocial Development

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1. Chapter Five: The First Two Years: Biosocial Development Monitoring growth and protecting health are critical from birth throughout the growing years. In early infancy growth is so fast and vulnerability so great that medical checkups should occur monthly to spot signs of trouble but also to guide parents who can best defend the child against illness and injury The average North American weights a little more than 7 pounds and measures about 20 inches in length. During the first days of life, newborns lose between 5 and 10 percent of their birth weight. By the fourth month of life their have regained and even doubled. The weight gain in the early months is fat, which changes to muscle and bone growth by eight months. By 24 months most children weight almost 30 pounds and measure about 30 inches in height. An infants body is disproportional to their head size. Their heads are one-fourth of their total length compared to one-fifth at one year and one-eighth in adulthood. Developmental Milestone

3. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is the sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant, whose death remains unexplained after the performance of an adequate postmortem investigation including (1) an autopsy, (2) investigation of the scene and circumstances of the death and (3) exploration of the medical history of the infant and family. In a typical situation parents check on their supposedly sleeping infant to find him or her dead. This is the worse tragedy parents can face, a tragedy which leaves them with a sadness and a feeling of vulnerability that lasts throughout their lives. Since medicine can not tell them why their baby died, they blame themselves and often other innocent people. Their lives and those around them are changed forever.

4. SIDS Statistics

5. Neurons Neurons are highly specialized cells that transmit impulses within animals to cause a change in a muscle or glandular cell. The cell body of a neuron, called the soma, contains the cell nucleus and the majority of the cytoplasmic inclusions and organelles. Dendrites, extend to other neurons and form the interface where impulses are transmitted from neuron to neuron. The axon, is transmits impulses to neurons downstream in the signal chain. Axons branch into smaller extensions at their terminal end and eventually create synapses with the target cell (neuron, muscle cell, etc.).

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7. The Human Brain

8. Neonatal Primitive Reflexes BABINSKI. Baby's foot is stroked from heel toward the toes. The big toe should lift up, while the others fan out. Absence of reflex may suggest immaturity of the CNS, defective spinal chord, or other problems. Reflex may be seen up to age one, then reaction will be reversed with the toes curling downward. BABKIN. When both of baby's palms are pressed, her eyes will close, mouth will open and her head will turn to one side. Absence of this reflex or if it reappears after vanishing around 3-4 mos., it may signify a malfunctioning CNS DOLL'S EYE While manually turning baby's head, his eyes will stay fixed, instead of moving with the head. While normally vanishing around one month of age, if it reappears later, there may be damage to the CNS. PALMAR GRASP. By pressing just one of baby's palms, fingers should grasp the object. Absence or weakness of this reflex could reflect an injured spinal chord or depressed CNS.

9. Neonatal Primitive Reflexes – con’t STEPPING. Holding baby upright with feet touching a solid surface and moving him forward should elicit stepping movements. After 3-4 months, this reflex should vanish. If it reappears, there may be an injury of the upper spinal chord. ROOTING When baby's cheek is stroked at the corner of her mouth, her head will turn toward finger and she will make sucking motions. If this reflex doesn't vanish in 3-4 months, the CNS may be malfunctioning. SUCKING. A finger or nipple placed in baby's mouth will elicit rhythmical sucking. Depressed sucking may be due to medication given during childbirth. WITHDRAWAL . A pin prick to the sole of baby's foot will make baby's knee and foot flex. Absence of this reflex could indicate a damaged sciatic nerve.

10. During the First Two Months Babies will typically: lift head when held at your shoulder turn head from side to side when lying on stomach lift and turn the head when lying on its back turn head toward bright colors and lights turn toward the sound of a human voice recognize bottle or breast respond to a shaken rattle or bell see clearly objects that are about 10" away from their faces prefer frequencies of the human voice like looking at faces respond to rocking and changes of position

11. By Four Months Accomplishments may include smiling back at you cooing and babbling quieting down in anticipation of being lifted or when spoken to or held following a moving object or person with his eyes attempting or demonstrating the ability to grasp or maneuver objects communicating hunger, fear, and discomfort (through crying and/or facial expression) reacting to "peek-a-boo" games ceasing to cry when you enter the room recognizing familiar faces and objects simultaneously using both hands to accomplish desired effects sitting with support holding head up well

12. By six Months Accomplishments may include rolling over lifting head and shoulders while lying on stomach** playing with toes recognizing own name imitating sounds and possibly including syllables such as ma, mu, da, and di in babbles biting and chewing moving toys from one hand to another shaking a rattle pulling up to a sitting position if you grasp her hands imitating your familiar actions laughing and squealing or screaming, if angry or annoyed smiling at own image in a mirror sitting in a high chair bouncing while in a standing position opening his mouth to be spoon-fed

13. Sensory and Perceptual Capacities Sensation is the response of a sensory system when it detects a stimulus. Perception is the mental processing of sensory information. Vision Vision is the least developed of the senses, with distance vision particularly blurry. Newborns focus on objects between 4 and 30 inches. Their vision is about 20/400. By age six months the infants vision is about 20/40 and 20/20 by 12 months. Hearing Compared to vision, hearing at birth is already quite sensitive. Studies suggest that newborns can distinguish their mother’s voices from the voices of other women soon after birth Habituation is the process of becoming familiar with a particular stimulus that it no longer elicits the physiological responses it it when it was originally experienced. Hearing Loss Otitis Media Taste, Smell, and Touch

14. Malnutrition Malnutrition is the term is used to refer to a number of diseases, each with a specific cause related to one or more nutrients (for example, protein, iodine or calcium) and each characterized by cellular imbalance between the supply of nutrients and energy on the one hand, and the body's demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions, on the other. An estimated 174 million under-five children in the developing world are malnourished as indicated by low weight for age, and 230 million are stunted. Malnutrition results in poor physical and cognitive development as well as lower resistance to illness. It is now recognized that 6.6 million out of 12.2 million deaths among children under-five - or 54% of young child mortality in developing countries - is associated with malnutrition.

15. Malnutrition – con’t Malnutrition includes undernutrition, in which nutrients are undersupplied, and over nutrition, in which nutrients are oversupplied. Undernutrition can result from inadequate intake; malabsorption; abnormal systemic loss of nutrients due to diarrhea, hemorrhage, renal failure, or excessive sweating; infection; or addiction to drugs. Over nutrition can result from overeating; insufficient exercise; over prescription of therapeutic diets, including parenteral nutrition; excess intake of vitamins, particularly pyridoxine (vitamin B6), niacin, and vitamins A and D; and excess intake of trace minerals.

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