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Binary Operations. Math/Logical. Binary Math. Decimal Addition Example. 3 7 5 8 + 4 6 5 7 . 1) Add 8 + 7 = 15 Write down 5 , carry 1. Add 3758 to 4657 :. 2) Add 5 + 5 + 1 = 11 Write down 1 , carry 1. 1. 1. 1. 3) Add 7 + 6 + 1 = 14 Write down 4 , carry 1. 8. 4.

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Binary operations

Binary Operations

Math/Logical



Decimal addition example
Decimal Addition Example

3 7 5 8

+ 4 6 5 7

1) Add 8 + 7 = 15

Write down 5, carry 1

Add 3758 to 4657:

2) Add 5 + 5 + 1 = 11

Write down 1, carry 1

1

1

1

3) Add 7 + 6 + 1 = 14

Write down 4, carry 1

8

4

1

5

4) Add 3 + 4 + 1 = 8

Write down 8


Decimal addition explanation
Decimal Addition Explanation

  • What just happened?

  • 1 1 1 (carry)

  • 3 7 5 8

  • + 4 6 5 7

    • 8 14 11 15 (sum)

    • 10 10 10 (subtract the base)

    • 8 4 1 5

1 1 1

3 7 5 8

+ 4 6 5 7

8 4 1 5

So when the sum of a column is equal to or greater than the base, we subtract the base from the sum, record the difference, and carry one to the next column to the left.


Binary addition rules
Binary Addition Rules

Rules:

  • 0 + 0 = 0

  • 0 + 1 = 1

  • 1 + 0 = 1 (just like in decimal)

  • 1 + 1 = 210 = 102 = 0 with 1 to carry

  • 1 + 1 + 1 = 310 = 112 = 1 with 1 to carry


Binary addition example 1
Binary Addition Example 1

Col 1) Add 1 + 0 = 1

Write 1

1 1 0 1 1 1

+ 0 1 1 1 0 0

Example 1: Add

binary 110111 to 11100

Col 2) Add 1 + 0 = 1

Write 1

Col 3) Add 1 + 1 = 2 (10 in binary)

Write 0, carry 1

1

1

1

1

Col 4) Add 1+ 0 + 1 = 2

Write 0, carry 1

Col 5) Add 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 (11 in binary)

Write 1, carry 1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

Col 6) Add 1 + 1 + 0 = 2

Write 0, carry 1

Col 7) Bring down the carried 1

Write 1


Binary addition explanation
Binary Addition Explanation

In the first two columns, there were no carries.

1 1 0 1 1 1

+ 0 1 1 1 0 0

- .

What is actually happened when we carried in binary?

In column 3, we add 1 + 1 = 2

Since 2 is equal to the base, subtract

the base from the sum and carry 1.

1

1

1

1

In column 4, we also subtract

the base from the sum and carry 1.

In column 5, we also subtract

the base from the sum and carry 1.

2

3

2

2

In column 6, we also subtract

the base from the sum and carry 1.

2

2

2

2

In column 7, we just bring down the

carried 1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1


Binary addition verification
Binary Addition Verification

1 1 0 1 1 1

+ 0 1 1 1 0 0

  • Verification

  • 1101112 5510

  • +0111002 + 2810

    • 8310

    • 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

    • 1 0 1 0 0 1 1

  • = 64 + 16 + 2 +1

  • = 8310

You can always check your

answer by converting the figures to decimal, doing the addition, and comparing the answers.

1

0

1

0

0

1

1


Binary addition example 2
Binary Addition Example 2

1 1 1 0 1 0

+ 0 0 1 1 1 1

  • Verification

  • 1110102 5810

  • +0011112 + 1510

    • 7310

    • 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

    • 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

  • = 64 + 8 +1

  • = 7310

Example 2:

Add 1111 to 111010.

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1


Decimal subtraction example
Decimal Subtraction Example

  • Try to subtract 5 – 7  can’t.

  • Must borrow 10 from next column.

Subtract

4657 from 8025:

8 0 2 5

- 4 6 5 7

Add the borrowed 10 to the original 5.

Then subtract 15 – 7 = 8.

  • Try to subtract 1 – 5  can’t.

  • Must borrow 10 from next column.

  • But next column is 0, so must go to

  • column after next to borrow.

1

7

9

1

1

1

Add the borrowed 10 to the original 0.

Now you can borrow 10 from this column.

3

3

6

8

Add the borrowed 10 to the original 1..

Then subract 11 – 5 = 6

3) Subtract 9 – 6 = 3

4) Subtract 7 – 4 = 3


Decimal subtraction explanation
Decimal Subtraction Explanation

8 0 2 5

- 4 6 5 7

3

3

6

8

  • So when you cannot subtract, you borrow from the column to the left.

    • The amount borrowed is 1 base unit, which in decimal is 10.

    • The 10 is added to the original column value, so you will be able to subtract.


Binary subtraction explanation
Binary Subtraction Explanation

  • In binary, the base unit is 2

  • So when you cannot subtract, you borrow from the column to the left.

    • The amount borrowed is 2.

    • The 2 is added to the original column value, so you will be able to subtract.


Binary subtraction example 1
Binary Subtraction Example 1

Col 1) Subtract 1 – 0 = 1

1 1 0 0 1 1

- 1 1 1 0 0

Col 2) Subtract 1 – 0 = 1

Example 1: Subtract

binary 11100 from 110011

Col 3) Try to subtract 0 – 1  can’t.

Must borrow 2 from next column.

But next column is 0, so must go to

column after next to borrow.

1

2

Add the borrowed 2 to the 0 on the right.

Now you can borrow from this column

(leaving 1 remaining).

0

0

2

2

Add the borrowed 2 to the original 0.

Then subtract 2 – 1 = 1

Col 4) Subtract 1 – 1 = 0

Col 5) Try to subtract 0 – 1  can’t.

Must borrow from next column.

1

0

1

1

1

Add the borrowed 2 to the remaining 0.

Then subtract 2 – 1 = 1

Col 6) Remaining leading 0 can be ignored.


Binary subtraction verification
Binary Subtraction Verification

  • Verification

  • 1100112 5110

  • - 111002 - 2810

    • 2310

    • 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

    • 1 0 1 1 1

  • = 16 + 4 + 2 + 1

  • = 2310

1 1 0 0 1 1

- 1 1 1 0 0

Subtract binary

11100 from 110011:

1

2

0

0

2

2

1

0

1

1

1


Binary subtraction example 2
Binary SubtractionExample 2

  • Verification

  • 1010012 4110

  • - 101002 - 2010

    • 2110

    • 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

    • 1 0 1 0 1

  • = 16 + 4 + 1

  • = 2110

1 0 1 0 0 1

- 1 0 1 0 0

Example 2: Subtract

binary 10100 from 101001

0

2

0

2

1

0

1

0

1



Logical shift and rotate operations1
Logical, Shift and Rotate Operations

  • A particular bit, or set of bits, within the byte can be set to 1 or 0, depending on conditions encountered during the execution of a program.

    • When so used, these bits are often called "flags".

  • Frequently, the programmer must manipulate these individual bits - an activity sometimes known as "bit twiddling".

    • The logical, shift, and rotate operations provide the means for manipulating the bits.


Logical or rules
Logical OR Rules

OR Operations

  • OR Results in 1 if either or both of the operands are 1.

  • OR Table

    0 OR 0 = 0

    0 OR 1 = 1

    1 OR 0 = 1

    1 OR 1 = 1


Logical or operation
Logical OR Operation

To perform the OR operation, take one column at a time and perform the OR operation using the OR table.

Ex 1: 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1

OR 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1


Logical or examples
Logical OR Examples

Ex 3: 0 1 1 1

OR 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1

Ex 2: 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

OR 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1


Logical xor rules
Logical XOR Rules

XOR Operations

  • The exclusive OR. Similar to OR except that it now gives 0 when both its operands are 1.

    Rules.

    0 XOR 0 = 0

    0 XOR 1 = 1

    1 XOR 0 = 1

    1 XOR 1 = 0


Logical xor examples
Logical XOR Examples

Ex 1: 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1

XOR 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

Ex 2: 0 1 1 1

XOR 0 0 1 0

0 1 0 1


Logical and rules
Logical AND Rules

AND Operations

  • AND yields 1 only if both its operands are 1.

    Rules.

    0 AND 0 = 0

    0 AND 1 = 0

    1 AND 0 = 0

    1 AND 1 = 1


Logical and examples
Logical AND Examples

Ex 1: 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1

AND 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

Ex 2: 0 1 1 1

AND 1 0 0 1

0 0 0 1


Logical not
Logical NOT

NOT Operations

  • NOT is a separate operator for flipping the bits.

    Rules.

    NOT 0 = 1

    NOT 1 = 0  

Example. NOT 1 0 1 0 = 0 1 0 1


Shift and rotate operations
Shift and Rotate operations

Whereas logical operations allow the changing of bit values in place,

SHIFT and ROTATE operations allow bits to be moved left or right without changing their values.


Shift left operation

1 1 0 1

Shift Left operation

SHL

SHL (shift left) shifts each bit one place to the left. The original leftmost bit islost and a 0 is shifted into the rightmost position.

Ex 1. SHL 1 1 0 1

1 1 0 1

0

= 1 0 1 0

Ex 2. SHL 1 1 0 0

= 1 0 0 0


Shift left multiple bits

1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

Shift Left - Multiple Bits

  • SHL # bits means to shift left # times

    Ex 1: SHL 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

0 0 0

= 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

Ex 2: SHL 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

= 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0


Shift right operation
Shift Right operation

SHR

SHR (shift right) shifts each bit one place to the right. The original rightmost bit is lost and a 0 is shifted into the leftmost position.

Ex 1. SHR 1 0 1 1

0 1 0 1 1

= 0 1 0 1

Ex 2. SHR 0 0 1 1

= 0 0 0 1


Shift right multiple bits
Shift Right – Multiple Bits

  • SHR # bits means to shift right # times

    Ex 1: SHR 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

    0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 = 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1

Ex 2: SHR 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

= 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1


Arithmetic shift right operation

1 1 0 1 1 = 1 1 0 1

Arithmetic Shift Right operation

ASR (retains rightmost sign bit)

Shifts each bit one place to the right. The original rightmost bit is lost and a the value of the most significant bit (leftmost bit) is shifted into the new leftmost position.

Ex 1. ASR 1 0 1 1

Ex 2. ASR 0 0 1 1

= 0 0 0 1


Arithmetic shift right multiple bits
Arithmetic Shift Right – Multiple Bits

  • ASR # bits means to arithmetic shift right # times

    Ex 1: ASR 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

    1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 = 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1

Ex 2: ASR 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

= 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1


Rotate left operation
Rotate Left operation

ROL

ROL (rotate left) shifts each bit one place to the left. The original leftmost bit is shifted into the rightmost position. No bits are lost.

Ex 1. ROL 1 1 0 1

1 0 1

1

Ex 2. ROL 1 1 0 0

= 1 0 0 1


Rotate left multiple bits
Rotate Left – Multiple Bits

  • ROL # bits means to rotate left # times

    Ex 1: ROL 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

    = 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0

Ex 2: ROL 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

= 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1


Rotate right operation
Rotate Right operation

ROR

ROR (rotate right) shifts each bit one place to the right. The original rightmost bit is shifted into the leftmost position. No bits are lost.

Ex 1. ROR 1 0 1 1

1

1 0 1

Ex 2. ROR 0 0 1 1

= 1 0 0 1


Rotate right multiple bits
Rotate Right – Multiple Bits

  • ROR # bits means to rotate right # times

    Ex 1: ROR 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

    = 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1

Ex 2: ROR 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

= 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1


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