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Applying Good To Great Principles To Bolting Accuracy and

Conversion Applications

Conversion charts for bolting are essential to helping MRO professional -- like you perhaps, to make wise

decisions when using industrial precision bolting tools. And, when you are in the market for a calibrated

torque wrench or bolt tensioner one of the main things you look for are the units output of ft. lbs., as well

as, the PSI maximum limits of the hydraulic power pump pack that powers the tool. You do this because

you want to ensure that your fasteners are tighten with accuracy, and that the torque tool you are using

is capable of helping you complete the job successfully the first time.

Why precise conversion of threaded fasteners is so important

Bolts and nuts also known as “threaded fasteners” are used around the world and within practically every

of industry. Threaded fasteners are used to assemble and secure equipment, infrastructure, machinery,

storage units and much more.

AMG Bolting Solutions most commonly fulfills the needs of production and maintenance personnel

responsible for pipelines, heavy-duty earth movers, petro-chemical, wind engineering, cranes,

commercial trucking, rail roads and bridges. Every application has its own unique set of required


For safety purposes, you lookup conversion charts for bolting to ensure everything lines up and is

fastened as recommended by the instruction manual, or given industry standard.

At AMG Bolting Solutions, we supply torque tools to an audience who places

safety #1, yet is conscience of cost-effectiveness and efficiency.

Every visitor to our website, whether and customer or not have access to our

downloadable conversion charts for bolting, because we believe safety


But, we are not alone.

For example, the folks over at Global Contractors offer a flexible outsourced operations with the ability to

meet and exceed the needs of industrial customers while touting a special safety distinction … 2.7 Million

Man-hours OSHA Free.


Separating the good from the great.

In the New York Times Bestseller “Good to Great“, author and leadership guru Jim Collins introduces the

“Flywheel Effect“, which is a path to change for companies.

Eventually on this path to change, these organizations reach a breakthrough point called the Hedgehog

Effect, where they are doing three (3) things intentionally, and very well.

Pay attention to detail, because they are passionate about

what they do.

Use the best tools for the job, because they believe they can

be the best in the world.

Measure everything twice, mistakes do not drive your

economic engine forward.

Now, let us look at these three things a little more closely from the view point of an engineer,

maintenance, operational, or purchasing professional within the industrial services, infrastructure

construction, or manufacturing industry as it relates to bolting and the use of conversion charts.

*HINT: This will be a deep, but insightful read. If you want your conversion guides quickly, simply click here or scroll to the

bottom of the page. Otherwise, enjoy this read.

Hedgehog Circle #1: Passionately Pay Attention

The concept here is simple.

If you genuinely love what you do — it will be easy to spot opportunity, and to perform your best.

AMG Bolting Solutions,14545 J. Military Trail,#137 Delray Beach,

Florida 33484.Contact No: (561) 306-4547,+1 800-709-2930


Most industrial jobs involving nuts and bolts are critical projects that if performed halfheartedly can

potential have a negative impact on the triple bottom-line; people, planet, and profit.

As a result, it is extremely important to always select the correct type of threaded fasteners and proper

size fitting.

Here are two examples of companies who are passionate about fasteners – one with a love for safety,

another with a love for chess.

Tight bolts are safe bolts

A company called Stress Indicators Incorporated has a product line called SmartBolt, which essentially are

fasteners with a color-signal Visual Indication System™ that allows MRO and equipment operators to

perform Total Performance Maintenance (TPM) activities more effectively and efficiently.

As a SmartBolt is tightened, tension forces it to stretch, and their patented Visual Indication System™

correlates fastener tension with a color as seen here:

 

This allows you, as the user, to know at a glance that your bolts are properly tightened, and most

importantly doing their job.

Playing with fasteners?

 

On the ecommerce front, an online store called House of Staunton, offers for sale a unique chessboard

featuring nuts and bolts as the games pieces selling for over $200.

While the creator of the pieces was probably inspired more by a passion for the game of chess, versus

bolts and nuts — the fact remains, passion allow the idea of using fasteners for something beyond its

intended use.


So, it is fair to say that passion for what you do helps you see things as they are, while helping you see

what can potentially be.

Now getting back to the application of traditional fasteners, passion for the task helps you better

understand the importance of calculating the optimal pressure and tightening conversions for the bolt(s)

and nut(s) used to complete the job.

Attention to detail also means using the proper tools for the job.

A case for using calibrated torque tools for the tightening large industrial nuts

There is a saying that goes something like this:

“Don’t bring a knife to a gunfire”.

There is also a vintage poster used in the Navy to remind machinist to “Use proper tools for the jobs“.

AMG Bolting Solutions,14545 J. Military Trail,#137 Delray Beach,

Florida 33484.Contact No: (561) 306-4547,+1 800-709-2930


Along the same lines, I would argue don’t bring a manual or impact wrench to jobs requiring a high level

of bolting accuracy and/or more foot pounds of torque than those tools can output.


Your goal when tightening a bolt is not solely to hold a object in place, instead it is to create a clamping

force across the joint which is able to sustain the operating conditions without easily becoming loose.

No matter how strong you are “Samson”, you can only torque your manual wrench so much before you

slip and end-up with busted knuckles.

And, as for your impact wrench — it shocks the nut with sharp blows similar to the way a hammer would


strike and pounds on the stud, meaning fatigue can occur leading to breakage, or damage.

Think of it sort of like a piston in your engine that makes contact with the head of an engine valve, which

leads to a valve fracture at stem to head radius.

Calibrated torque tools like pneumatic torcguns allow you to set and apply evenly distributed pre-load on

the bolt.

In doing so, the torque tools delivers precision gearing which produces a consistent, calibrated turning of

the fastener to assure you will achieve the optimal bolt load within your range of accuracy every time.

Again, passion for what you do means the pursuit of perfection and doing things right the first time.

With that in mind let us think for a moment.

You have the right tools for the job.

You have studies the proper usage of your fasteners.

You have researched the benefits and safety features of the torque tools.

You are ready to go ….

But wait,…

How can you be certain the specification of the tool you are looking to buy, or use can really perform as


Who keeps the claims of torque tool manufacturer’s in check, and who holds them accountable?

AMG Bolting Solutions,14545 J. Military Trail,#137 Delray Beach,

Florida 33484.Contact No: (561) 306-4547,+1 800-709-2930


Hedgehog Circle #2: Be The Best. Have A Higher Standard

This is a often the toughest pill to swallow, yet, the concept is simple — if the core of your business can

only be good, and not great at something — why are you doing it?

As done within other industries and verticals, the industrial bolting world relies

heavily on accredited laboratories to ensure the torque and tension tools being

manufactured are achieving the results they state they will help you attain.

For example, Accuserve, Inc. is an ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 (General requirements

for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories) accredited

laboratory meeting numerous industry standards, including NIST Traceable,

ANSI-Z540-1, ISO 9000, manufacturers and GIDEP procedures, AMS 2750D, TS 16949, FDA, and Mil-Spec,

among others important requirements to ensure the safety and precision of torque tools.

At minimum, as an engineer or MRO you want to make certain the torque tools you are using to properly

tighten fasteners are 3rd party tested, and have passed.


However, odds are you have not solely looking for torque tools that meet the basic standards, rather, we

want to find the one the exceed the standards.

Of course, there are costs involved with exceeding the standards, such as:

Better materials

Fair wages for employees

Safety inspection costs

Quality certification costs

More than paper standards

Of course, you want to keep in mind that every torque tool has to meet minimum standard prior to

hitting the market.

And, you need to know 3rd party testing cost money.

Manufacturers, at least those in the hydraulic torque wrench and pneumatic torcgun space typically pass

these cost on to their customers.

To save money you should consider buying directly from a manufacturer’s representative.

Benefits of buying torque tools directly from manufacturer

It is important to note that most manufacturers of any product will have you buy from a large distributor,

dealer, or reseller depending on the estimated frequency and size of your orders.

There are a few who offer manufacturer direct sales via a manufacturer’s

representative agreement.

When you are able to buying your torque tools, or other equipment in this

manner you are typically able to eliminate extra cost like:

Dropship handling fees

3rd party testing fees

Distributor AND Retail mark-up

AMG Bolting Solutions,14545 J. Military Trail,#137 Delray Beach,

Florida 33484.Contact No: (561) 306-4547,+1 800-709-2930


But, even more importantly then eliminating cost is the ADDED VALUE such as:

Direct manufacturer customer service

Highest level of tool knowledge

Over-night tool replacement

Being the best manufacturer’s representative

AMG Bolting Solutions primarily offers hydraulic torque wrenches and pneumatic torcguns manufactured

by Torc, LLC.

This New Jersey based manufacturer is headquartered at the same location as Hytorc, and is a quiet


Certainly we could sell inexpensive torque wrenches from China or India that are replicas of USA models,

but we don’t.

Likewise, if a customer insists on an Enerpac, RAD, or HydraTight product we will source it, however —

remember the Hedgehog Concept here is to be the best, not just exceptional.

Hence, we provide tools that are cost-effective AND have set the highest standards, not either/or.

Enerpac for example makes and offers high quality tools, but for the price of a used Enerpac hydraulic

power pump on eBay you can buy a new one of ours.

Not because of poor quality, but, because of the distribution model.

Enerpac requires us to resells via a large distribution warehouse. Torc, LLc does not.

In addition, our torque tools are manufactured by the same company that for over 30 years has made

hydraulic torque tools for companies like Rapidtorc, Snap-On and Torcup.

However, by selling as a Manufacturer’s Representative, AMG Bolting Solutions is able to save customers

30% to 50% when compared to these other brands.

So we,

Eliminate Middle Man Costs

Provide Superior Customer Service & Support

Make Buying Easy

Create and Distribute Resources To Improve Your Relationship With Your Torque Tools


The latter two bullet-points are the difference makers for us.

While Torc, LLc makes great tools they are horrible at providing content relevant to your tool usage.

By creating posts like this one, and making bolting conversion charts easily accessible online we are

positioning ourselves to be the best.

Even our pricing is right upfront, so you never have the guess or wait for a reply to an RFQ.

In other words, the best hydraulic torque wrench, at the best price for an American made hydraulic

torque wrench, coupled with the best torque tool service, ultimately equals the highest standard for the


This includes making it easy to use your tools efficiently, effectively, and safely.

So, now …

You have identified the tools, accessories, and fasteners you need to get the job done right.

You have verified the calibration of your torque and tension equipment.

If looking to buy — you have sourced your tools at the best possible value [price + quality +


Now, you need to figure out how to convert various metrics into a torque compatible language.

Before, you go scouring the internet for torque conversion charts keep reading, we have already done the

homework for you.

Hedgehog Circle #3: Actively Make Decisions That Make Money.

The idea here is to change thinking from how much profit are we making on this job to what is the

potential life time value of this customer.

AMG Bolting Solutions,14545 J. Military Trail,#137 Delray Beach,

Florida 33484.Contact No: (561) 306-4547,+1 800-709-2930


According to Bolting Science, “a survey was completed in the United States of automobile service

managers which indicated that 23% of all service problems were traced to loose fasteners, with even 12%

of new cars and industrial freight-liners being found to have fasteners loose.

In April of 2014, the Federal Railroad Administration sponsored a two-part

research project to study the structural integrity of joint bars. And, while railway

train system were found to be safer than ever, 31% of all accidents are a result

of faulty tracks, mainly loose bolts.

These findings are the primary reason why AMG Bolting Solutions has created

three (3) conversation charts to help professionals like you properly tighten your threaded fasteners.

Presented below are information and techniques intended to assist an Engineer and/or MRO professional

in ensuring that threaded fasteners are tightened so that the desired pre-load is achieved.

The Conversation Charts For Bolting provides helpful information for simplifying the translation

measurement unit into equivalent unit systems. You can also use the conversion charts for selecting the

proper tools and equipment when shopping our online precision bolting tool store.

NOTE: All capacities and measurements on the AMG website and catalog are expressed in uniform value.

Now that you have the conversion charts, you might be wondering, what keeps the bolt and nut


How Bolts and Nuts Work Best

Correctly tightening bolts make use of the intended elastic properties of the threaded fasteners.

One of the properties of elasticity states that it takes about twice as much force to stretch a spring twice

as far.

This linear dependence of displacement upon stretching force is called Hooke’s Law of Physics.


This video does a great job explaining Hooke’s Law of Physics.

It is essential to understand that the stress-strain of a bolt has an elastic range and a plastic range.

Within this elastic range Hooke’s Law always holds true.

Bolts and nuts are impacted by pressure, volume, force, load, weight, size, and several other units of

measurement, as well as, external factors such as weather, environment, and temperature.

When a threaded fastener is at optimal tightness the bolt and nut will behave like springs. When load is

applied, the bolt stretches and tries to return to its original length.

Typically this creates something called “compressive force” throughout all the joint members.

That said, according to a study published by the Fastening and Joining Research Institute, Department of

Mechanical Engineering, and Oakland University : Clamp Load Loss due to Fastener Elongation Beyond its

Elastic Limit

“The amount of clamp load due to an externally applied separating force is determined for a

boiled assembly in which the fastener is elongated past its proportional limit, while the clamped

joint remained within its elastic range.

After the initial tightening of the fastener, the joint is subsequently subjected to a tensile

separating force, which further increases the fastener tensile stress into the nonlinear range. Such

separating force will simultaneously reduce the clamping force in the bolted joint.

Upon the removal of the separating service load, the bolted joint system reaches a new

equilibrium point between the fastener tension and the joint clamping force. At the new

equilibrium point, the fastener tension is reduced from its value at initial assembly, due to the

plastic elongation of the fastener.”

AMG Bolting Solutions,14545 J. Military Trail,#137 Delray Beach,

Florida 33484.Contact No: (561) 306-4547,+1 800-709-2930


As supported by the study, since a “separating force” is also present improper tightening of a fastener —

be too loose or too tight can lead to compromising the joint integrity.

The study adds;

“The reduction in fastener tension translates into a partial—yet permanent—loss of the clamping

load that may lead to joint leakage, loosening, or fatigue failure.

Proper torque and tension, sometimes added by a specialized washer helps establish an elastic range that

creates a nonlinear model to interrupt the fastener behavior past the proportional limit of its material,

and allows for the separating force to be removed.

To prove this point a test was conducted using the following methodology.

According a research paper published on the American Society of Mechanical Engineers website by Sayed

A. Nassar and Payam H. Matin, Cumulative Clamp Load Loss Due to a Fully Reversed Cyclic Service Load

Acting on an Initially Yielded Bolted Joint System – DOI,: 10.1115/1.2217971

“Two fastener materials with significantly different rates of strain hardening are used for

modeling the behavior of the bolted joint system.

The goal is to observe the effect of three nondimensional variables on the amount of clamp load loss.

Each of these three nondimensional variables are identified as follows:


The first variable represents the stiffness ratio of the joint and the fastener.

The second variable represents the ratio of initial fastener tension to the fastener elastic


The third variable represents the ratio of the separating force to the force that causes joint

separation to start.

“Analytical results are presented for a range of stiffness ratios that simulates both soft and hard

joint applications. Experimental verification of the analytical results is presented.


Whether you are an MRO simply looking for the right calibrated tightening tool to complete an upcoming

bolting project, or an engineer looking to prevent or solve a bolt failure, it is critical to know the precision

torque ranges and limitations of your fasteners and industrial bolting equipment.

Therefore, if you have not yet done so already, …

download these FREE Conversion Charts For Bolting

Finally, I’d like to hear from you. If you’ve used any of these conversion charts or methods successfully, I’d

love it if you shared your experience in a comment below. Also, if you have any questions, feel free to

leave them below too.

AMG Bolting Solutions,14545 J. Military Trail,#137 Delray Beach,

Florida 33484.Contact No: (561) 306-4547,+1 800-709-2930